Saturday, June 7, 2014

BA/BASW second year New Directions Summary and Question

 BA/BASW second year New Directions Summary and Question

Mass Media And Technology / B A 2nd Year
Mass Media And Technology
A writers technique : figures of speech core reading -1
Computer and the pursuit of happiness
                                      David Gelernter
        This essay refuses the fact that 21st century is the age of information technology. The writer puts there questions:
a)     Are computer and the internet really responsible for the revolution of information technology?
b)    Whether the computer and the internet has really helped the human being over 50 years.
c)     Will the computer and the internet play significant change in the next fifty years?

In this essay the writer is writing the public opinion that the writers have brought revolution in information technology. According to the writer it is not only the computer and the internet that has played a significant role is making the age as information is but the other means like radio and television are equally responsible.
                   The writer clearly says that neither we are in information nor the computers and internet have brought revolutionary development in human history. The people claim that what counts in 21st century is the information but they have been mistaken. In fact the materials which were important in the 20th century are equally important even in the present time. The writer says,” virtual food make you feel full but it does not prevent from starting.” It clarifies that the artificial world or the abstract ideas can never help the human beings to live a natural life.
                   It is generally claimed that we have got sophisticated machines to create stone and deliver the information. However this claim is not able to process that the present generation is much happier than precious ones. No doubt the children of the present time enjoy their self in play with computers. But it does not necessarily mean that the past generations were not happy.
                   The writer believes that the computers and the internet have brought a radical change in science and engineering however it is just an evolution of the industrial age in other sector. Therefore 21th century is not a revolution but it is an evolution of the 20th century.
                   Have computers been good or bad for making seems they were invented 50 years ago. Obviously information has enriched the life a moral human beings but it doesn't necessarily mean that wealthy people are happy. The writer compares the information technology with plumbing. In the industrial age the common place was the well where face to face communication was possible. But in 21st century the water has been brought to home with the help of plumbing. Undoubted, it is easy but not healthy. Truly speaking the computer and the internet have ignored help benefit. Moreover human desires are the same although the ways to fulfill them might be different. Therefore the life of the mankind hasn’t been changed by the computers and the internet.
# Will the computers and internet bring significant changes in the next 50 years?
          The writer doesn't clearly state  that the computers and the internet have brought changes in the present time. This main argument is that the development of the information technology is continuous and there is no revolution yet all. He compares the development of information technology which breathing. Just as breathing supports the life, so does information technology. Besides there is no significant change in the structure of human desires but here might be in the days to come. Although the writer criticizes the role of the computers and the internet in his first 2 paints he argues that the whole points should not be given only to the computes and the internet. But we have to see the contribution of the industrial age for the progress of the 21st century.
Themes
-         Possibilities and limitations of technology.
-         The nature of technological change.
-         The pros (adv) and cons (disadv) of the internet
-         Online shopping and education.
-         The difference between information and knowledge
-         The distinction between reality and virtual reality.

Three Questions
I.            Whether thanks to the computers and the internet.
II.            Whether computes have been beneficial or detrimental (harmful)
III.            Whether computers are likely to have positive or negative influence.
David Gelernter in this argumentative essay raises three questions about the use of computers and internet and address them in his own way. First question he raises is whether thanks to computer and internet we are now giving in a new information age? He answers this question negatively and says that we aren’t in an information age and computer and the internet aren’t a revolutionary development in human history except in science and engineering. He opines that we need food, clothing, sheltered and possession and this thing are need now. There is not any change in these matters. Brought by information age he says information age is the revolutionary development of industrial age.
The second question is whether computer have been beneficial, detrimental ( harmful) to humanity over the last 50 years? Even this question, he, answers negatively. Through computers have generated lots of information and much wealth, human happiness has increased on the whole. New technologies have come into existence but social structure. They have engendered and haven’t necessarily improved the human element associated with old structure has decreased.

          The third question is whether computers are likely to have positive or negative influences over next half centuries ( 50 years). This question is answered rather positively. He says that technology will have little to do with human happiness in the future. Respite the new possibilities that new technologies introduce human uniqueness and happiness lie between technological strength, speed and intellect.

                  Response of  Winn. F. Martin
        Information technology has brought substantial changes in the western civilization.
        Printing press has helped to throw off the monarchical systems.
        Internet has challenged the policy of china.
        The views of Gelernter are luddite
        Internet has made possible for the direct voting systems.
        Even a camel driver in the desert is not excluded from the world as he listens to the radio.
In this essay the writer Winn. F. Martin challenges the views of Gelernter and he strongly points but that information technology has brought revolutionary changes in the present time. The writer doesn't disagree the fact that the basic human beings are the same but the strongly argues that the way we get them is different. Especially in the western civilization information technology has played a significant role.
          It is the printing press that has helped to overflow the monarchical systems. Similarly the internet has challenged the secret policy of china due to which it is becoming democratic. Likewise the writer calls the ideas of Gelenter as being without   because he seems to be against the idea of industrialization. The writer gives an example of a camel driver in order to prove how information technology binds human being irrespective of the Geography.
          The most significant rule of the internet is in education system. In the present time a person can have foreign degree by staying on his over home. The education system has been globalized due to the internet. In fact the internet has become a public space for every month to meet and shake their opinion.
          Therefore computers and internet have become inhabitable part of modern human beings it is absolutely conservative feelings to under estimate the value of the computer and the internet improperly used it can be a boon but if it is misused, it can be a curse.


First Grade – Standing The Hall   
                                                      Chenyl Savageale
          This poem depicts a real picture of a classroom in which a poor student is punished by the teacher. By showing ill practice a punishment that poet strongly speaks for the reformative of the education system. In fact punishment has got negative effect on the learners and teaching learning system is incomplete with punishment.
          According to the poem the boy couldn’t read and the teacher threw him out side of the class. He stood there and remembers his grandmother who told him the stories but how she was at hospital. He wondered when she would be back at home. The boy knew that the letters told the stories but unfortunately he could not read them. Besides everyone pointed out him as a stupid and a hopeless and the principal punished him. He always waited for the bell to ring or the teacher calling him back in the class. Despite the punishment he still saw the sign port of hope looking at the spider webbing, its net and the sun making the life possible. He felt a kind of communication with them and felt himself distinct from him teacher.
          The poet may be trying to tell us that punishment never makes a student eager to learn. Besides a student's spill should not be measured in the narrow concept, there are obviously many skills. Through which a child can shape his future. It doesn’t necessarily mean that the child who can't read is really hopeless and stupid even if he is poor in studies he can do the best in other field. Therefore the child must be left to learn in the natural environment and according to his will.
        This poem foregrounds the discussion about educational issues including literacy, oral versus writing tradition, bilingual education, minority students learning problems and disabilities, students punishment.
        In this poem it is talked about the need for teacher to consider a student an individual. Different individuals have different interests background, intelligence. Imposition of any learning should be avoided. The students should be reflected in matters of creativity of their language, cultural background.

How the web destroys the quality of Students Research Paper. - David Rothenberg

How the web destroys the quality of Students Research Paper.
                                                                                                   - David Rothenberg
       In this essay Prof. Rothenberg has a display the harmful effects of the use of external especially for the students. The writer has claimed that plagiarism (copying) has lost the sense of originality. In fact his experience with the last semester students clarify that the students were eager to download the materials without mentioning their sources likewise all the references were taken from the external and the students even didn’t know where they exactly occurred.
                   For the ever growing use of the web, the students themselves aren’t fully responsible because the universities themselves teach the students,” Don’t read, just connect”. Instead of searching the materials in the libraries, it is easy for the students to cut and paste.
                   The university teachers must be friendly with the students and they must encourage the students to read books from the libraries and consult the related journals .When the teachers give pressure to the students they are likely to download the materials form the web that helps them to secure a good grade and avoid the pressure of the teacher.
                   It is also necessary that libraries must be mad up-to-date. It is better to invest on buying book than spending so much money for computer.

Text
          According to the writer, he is given hundreds of research papers by the final year's students. He would like to read all of them and evaluate them but he knows that this papers aren’t the original creation of the students for they were down loaded from the web.
          It was obvious that the downloaded materials lost their originality due to which writing of the students lost coherence (unity).
          While looking at the papers the writer noticed that all the works cited from the web and they were written during two months. It clarified that the students were missing the general trend of the past and they also failed to make their papers specific. Neither they were able to take any authentic writers. For their citation nor were they able to give credit to the owner of the material.
          In the research papers the beautiful pictures had been quoted but those pictures were the result of copy ,cut and paste. Besides random quotations were found but the sources weren’t maintain.
          Prof. Rotherberg Denies that he is a Luddite but against the idea of misusing the technology. In other words, he believes that the students' quality should not be damaged by so – called industrialization.
          After finding out the errors with students, the writer talks about the causing factors for their flight. First of all, universities themselves are responsible because they are trying to show themselves modernize and spend a huge amount for the computers. The slogan “don’t read, first connect “encourages the students to download the materials rather than create their own ideas. Similarly the teachers are unable to provide adequate information to the students, the result is downloading the materials. Especially the students of second language download the materials so as to secure a good grade in their exams.
          Therefore the students must be made aware about the harmful effects of downloading the materials and they must be encouraged to use libraries free – entry.
Richard Cummins / An opposing view Richard Cummins

An opposing view
                           Richard Cummins
          When the article of Rothenberg was published a lot of responses appeared in the newspaper. Among them Richard Cummins also could not help publishing his ideas. He opposed the idea of Rothenberg and tries to establish the web as an inevitable part of modern students.
          Richard Cummins appreciates the logics given by Rothenberg but he criticizes the narrow concept of Rothenberg. Cummins argues that the available materials should be provided to the students so that they can make their writing and thinking even better. Similarly he rejects the idea of originality and clarifies that there is nothing of modern techniques that enable the students to increase their quality.
          Cummins uses the metaphor of a spider and a fly. It is up to the students whether to become a spider or a fly. In other words good and evil come together. Whether we take the good aspects or the bad ones depend on ourselves. So the web is not responsible for the destruction of students for their plight.
          Therefore the teachers should not advocate for banning (to respect) the modern techniques but they should teach the students how to get benefit out of them –
        Personal persuasive essay
        Educational hazards (dangerous situation) of the world wide web (www)
        Rothenberg’s criticism of students use of www
        The use of interest is don’t read just connect, surf (search), download, cut and paste 




School is bad for children
                                                                  John Halt
In this essay, the writer seems to be against the idea of formal education about, he is not in favor of abolishing the school education, and however he stands for the reformation of traditional teaching system.
          According to him, schools are killing the curiosity of the students by imposing (forcing) the final truth in their mind. When a child comes at school he comes with a lot of expectation and frantically he returns home with the feeling of pessimism. Besides, the writer argues that the school has changed the students' natural intelligence, curiosity, confidence, resourcefulness independence, patience and energy into past, laziness, dependences, indifference. Actually the child has got immense confidence about his potentiality but the teachers always discourage him. The additional to this child, finds the classroom to be cooled and ugly. There are other children but they are unable to communicate with each other.
          Most of the schools separate the learning from the living. When they create the gap between life and learning the children are confused. The classroom environment is artificial and the teachers act almost like robots.
          Usually the students are taken as a blank sheet of paper and the teachers are free to write on their mind. The teachers never trust the students and they never appreciate their natural knowledge. As a result the children feel that he is not worth of listening to.
          The teachers neglect the needs for the respects of individual difference. Every individual has got different perspective and the teachers always try to establish the final perspective.
          The teachers teach the students that to make a mistake or to be confused is to commit a crime and as a result the students start creating the teacher. The writer claims that the schools are teaching him to be indifferent. The class environment is just opposite to the way how a child lives his life in a natural form. There is no doubt that there are other children in the classroom but all of them are in silence. They all seem as if they have nothing to do with each others. As a result, the child takes his teachers to be inhuman.
-         Reformation
According to the writer, there are fundamental changes necessary for school education. The first and foremost thing is that compulsory attendance should be abolished. He justifies that when something is made compulsory it develops unwillingness from the students. It is self-evident that forceful. Knowledge is useless at the time of crisis. Curiosity is developed not to force but through freedom. Undoubtedly, the critics might counter argue, “If the children did not go to school where would they go?” It does not necessarily mean that if the children are not compelled to go to school, they will come out in the street. When the education system is made free, the children will be more eager to go to school.
          The second reformation that the writer puts forward is that the students or the children should be taught in a natural environment. In other words, the teachers should bring the outer world into the school. For example, the students should learn about the law not from the teacher but from the judging himself.
The children should be allowed to judge their works by themselves. It is better to encourage the student to learn from each other rather than dictating what to the small kids learn more readily from their teacher. They also point out the exams should be at list and the fixed curriculum should also be abolished. His argument is that certain hour's examination cannot judge the ability of the students. Besides the fixed curriculum units, should be given the unlimited potentiality of the students.
          In this way John Halt stand for the reformation of the traditional system of school education. In his opinion must of the schools are running natural knowledge of the students and they are making them passive and dull.


In the first half in this essay John Halt criticizes formal education and says that schools convert students natural intelligences curiosity, confidence, resourcefulness independence ,patience and energy into passiveness, laziness, dependences, indifferences, boredom and low self-esteem. Halt further says that the schools discourage experimentation, creativity and originality. - They teach students that learning in separated from living and that students can't be trusted to learn and are no good at it. The children from school learn that the learning is a passive process. - School neglect students need and interest and shows no respect from individual differences - They teach students that, “to be wrong uncertain, confused is a crime and as a result students start to dodge, bluff, fake, cheat. - School doesn't teach to interact with other people and to lives and without paying attention to anything going around them. - Schools are almost always ugly, cold (not interested) and inhuman. - They encourage dishonesty, --- and anxiety - They provide, little opportunity for students to learn about the real world.
Halt’s recommendations to enhance real learning and improve school
·       - Abolish or modify compulsory school, attention.
·       - Take students into the community to learn about real world first hand.
·        - Bring more of the real world into schools different professional people to talk that they actually do.
·        - Encourage students to work together and learn from each other.
·       - Encourage students to learn to evaluate their own work and find their mistake and correct them.
·       - Eliminate (avoid) grades, exams and rank.
·       - Abolish the fixed, required curriculum.

A Coward
                              Premchand
In the story, a coward, Premchand shows how cultural difference within a conflict creates problem among the people who live in the same society. Basically the Hindu cast system has created problems among the people in case of marriage. Moreover, the gap between a traditional mind and the modern mind device the people clearly in to opposite pose .Most of the people still stick to their conservative beliefs due to which the gap has always remained unfulfilled .In the story, Keshav a Brahmin boy falls in love with Prema a girl from Banya caste. In the beginning Keshav seems to be very strong because he is ready to undergo any hardships that might come on his way. He convinced Prema to be bold and fight against the conservative mind. Prema, who is loyal to her parents, doesn’t close to against them. However she doesn’t share to live her life without Keshav as Prema goes home. She thinks about Keshav and collects her strength to tell her relationship with Keshav to her parents. In the beginning her parents rejects it strongly but they agreed when the put her life at stake. Prema’s father went to talk with Keshav’s  father, who reacted very rudely to him. However he tolerated being the father of a girl. Then Prema wrote a letter to Keshav informing him that she was ready to undergo to any shorts of difficulties if he was ready to accept her as his life partner. She also wrote that her parents were eager to meet him and he was called for dinner. Prema waits for Keshav impatiently but neither he nor his letter comes only the next morning Prema gets the letter of Keshav in which she finds him unexpectedly coward and disloyal. Her parents ask her about his response but she tells them nothing she hides her pain the whole day and the next morning she commits suicide.
          In this way this story shows the cultural problems of the same society due to the conservative feelings of the people. The lover like Prema and Keshav are very much frequent in our society too and they are killing themselves due to the fear of social parts which are almost impossible for them to cross.

Friends And Strangers
                                                                                                Margaret R. Nydell
This essay studies the intercultural differences is relation with the concept of friends and strangers in American culture and in Arabian culture. In Arabian culture there is gap between friends and strangers. There are certain rights and duties in a friendship a stranger is neither alone for  rights nor he is offered any duties. In Arabian culture refusing a friend as taken out breaking the friendship even if the work is impossible to perform, a friend never refuses it directly this response is “ I will try my best”. This response from a friend keeps the friendship alive forever
          An Arabian culture personal benefits is taken from the friendship we often here “ Do it for my sake” but in American culture no benefit is expected from the friendship even if a persona is helped by the other he is not morally obliged to help him.
          The personal choice is so much valued that even the children aren’t obliged to take care of their parents in American culture, personal details are much more important than a person himself. They readily disclose their social and economic backgrounds. In contrast to Arabian culture, the Americans are unwilling to disclose their personal details and individual is much more important than his background.
          An Arabian culture insulting the friends is frequent without information they used their friends and story there as a long as they please. They do not feel that they are interfering their personal life.  Being alone is taken as either being dissatisfied or being sad but in American culture privacy is highly valued. A person likes to have a moment of privacy so that they could feel oneself with their self. Besides the Americans enjoy being with the friends but they never let them cross the boundary of personal life.
          These are some of the differences between the Arabians and the Americans concept of friendship. The Arabians have distinctly the line between friends and strangers but the Americans have blurred the line.
-         For Arabs a friend is someone whose company one enjoys and whose duty is to give help and do his/her ability where as for westerners a friend is someone whose company one enjoys but whom one doesn’t except to have the same sense of duty.
-         For Arabs and oral promise has its own value as response where as for westerners actions are valued more than words.
-         For Arabs loyalty is expected from friends but westerns don’t accept the same sense of loyalty.
-         In the culture of Arabs when introducing oneself it is common to give a lot of information about oneself from a one’s family and one social connection where as in westerns culture less personal information are disclosed.
-         In the culture of Arabs one writes one's friends often and has little concern about privacy where as in western culture one just writes ones friend less after and has a strong sense of privacy.
-         Arab people, except a friend to reciprocate invitation but the western people don’t have as strong of a need for reciprocal invitation.

Polite But Thirsty                                                                     By: Yaping Tang
In this essay “Polite but Thirsty” the writer has explained some of the cultural variations in between Chinese and American society. Especially she has tried to make the Chinese students aware about the American culture so that they could be adopted very easily in American culture.
Usually a new comer feels like a baby or an idiot in a new culture because of culture misunderstanding. There are several language problems but in addition to this the cultural differences make the problem even worse. Thus it is necessary to learn the cultural differences. The writer found some fundamentals differences between the Chinese and the American cultures.
a)     The Chinese classrooms are in proper discipline. There are certain rooms and values of the classrooms that they aren’t allowed to anything but in American classroom the students eat like in a canteen. As an eastern student, it was really a strange experience and a great adventure to be adopted in the American classroom.
b)    The second fundamental differences that the writer noticed were the directness of American people. They responded just in two ways; Yes or No.  They never show the so-called politeness which is highly esteemed eastern culture.
c)     The American people believe in the informality. They break the hierarchies and treat every individual equally. They address even their professor by their first name without adding the title Sir/Madam.
d)    The Americans never hide their feelings when someone praises the food, the house, the cloth, etc. They never reject it but rather they accept it happily which is very much ware in the eastern culture.
e)     The Americans open the gifts just in front of the host, he opens it and praises by heart but it is taken as uncivilized manner in the east. In eastern culture, gifts are given usually at the end of the party and they are opened after the departures of the guest.
f)      In American societies tipping system is highly popular as even as it is taken as necessary work in a restaurant. But in eastern society especially in China leaving a tip is rarely found. The Chinese students are ashamed when they aren’t leaving the tip to the workers. In this way Yaping Tang has tried to ease the problems of Chinese students in America. Her main intention is to reduce the cultural misunderstanding and to enable the Chinese students to learn the American culture before they come to America.

  Cross cultural differences in the United States and China.
 Informality / formality
 Equality / social hierarchy
 Direction / indirection

-         Self asserts / modern
        Culture shocks – feeling of love and change and so suffering – food, climate, language, mannerism, communication
Symptoms of culture shocks:
          Absent, mindedness a feeling of hopelessness,fits of anger, excessive fear of being cheated, robbed or ignored, homesickness.



                           Time Talks with an Accent
  Robert Levine
          In his essay Robert Levine discusses about cultural differences in regards with the concept of time and the intercultural misunderstandings and conflicts that owns the variations in the temporal concept of time.
This essay is based on the personal experience of the writer himself, as a writing professor at Brazil. In the essay he discusses about the difficulties he had had in a college to a new concept of social time, which reflects different cultural beliefs, assumption and values then he was habitual in his native country i.e. us. After his experience with Brazilian student teachers and other people, the writer realized that the people did have different concept and values about the time. These people were unable to materialize the time and follow its pace.
        Unlike American students, the Brazilian student ignored the time value and came in the class, without hesitation, even long after the commencement of the class. Besides they were in no hurry after leaving the class for they surrounded the teacher for a long time. Moreover the writer also found that even the professions were not punctual. They made the guilty for turning up late likewise his experience with the landlord suggested the same. Although he waited for him for a long time, he was unable to meet him, Undoubtedly the people of Brazil make apartments but they never travel themselves respecting the valves of time obviously they understand their social time but it make a great confusion to the people like the writers, who is accustomed to the exactness of the time.

·       As a child, the thought that time was measured by a clock but later in his maturity he know that it was measured by culture.
·       As a writing prof. he knew that Brazilians Report everything for tomorrow. ‘Amanha” was highly valued in their culture.
·       He also noticed that exactness of the time was not possible in Brazil. The people had their own concept of time and them more accordingly.
·       The Brazilians didn’t have the concept of early and late. They seem almost indifferent to the valve of time.
·       Not only were the students, the prof. also indifferent to the value of time. They were found of making appointments but never turn up on time.
·       The writers also noticed the high people or the landlords display their value by not being punctual. He waited for his landlord for more than two hours but the landlord didn’t wait for him even for the minutes.
·       In conclusion he realized that Brazilian concept of time was taking. They wasted their time in talking.
·       Levin in this narrating essay describes cultural differences in concept of time and inter cultural conflict and misunderstanding that after worries from these temporal variations. In order to enhance the intercultural experience Levine stresses the importance of learning unwritten rules about time in a new culture.
·       Levine in this essay means that rules of punctuality are strongly shaped by cultural values and believes.
·       Levine clarifies the concept of social time and says that social time is a cultural tempo. Orientation reflects unconscious values believes and rules. The components of social time and concept of punctuality, pace of life and orientation of past, present and future are discussed.
·       Adjusting to a forming concept of time is different because it reflects values, believes and rules that are after very different from those of the writers culture and that are unwritten or hidden.
·       In this place of writing Robort Levine maintains that there are cultural differences in concept of time reflecting values and believes which often lead to intercultural conflict and misunderstanding. By learning about a new cultures pace of life rules of partiality and orientation to past, present and future a writer can minimize problems and facilitate cultural adjustments.


Where do you stand?
                                                          Lisa Davis
          In this essay the writer is trying to show how the body position can have non- verbal communication. Through the position of the body, the people also communicated their cultural differences not only between the countries but also within the same country.
          The people from Middle East make physical intimacy where the Americans maintain a distance. When a businessman of Middle East steps forward, the American steps backward as far as possible.
          The difference of personal space is within access. The male and the female of the same location show different physical intimacy. The female would like to come quite closer than the males.
          The cultural differences can be seen in classroom environment. The American culture teaches the students to make a direct eye contact with the teacher whereas the Asian student feels it as disrespect to the teachers. On the other hand an American teacher feels it as insult if the students break the eye contact. Similarly, a Japanese unless feel quite uncomfortable when his American partner deals with him informal manner.
Key points.
a)      Americans use more eye contact than do the Japanese.
b)    South Americans conjure at a close distance then do the northern Europeans.
c)     Saudi Arabians show more physical contact than the Americans. They show intimacy by holding hands walk in the street joining the hands but the American hate it.
d)    Men keep greater distance than the women and women tend to make more eye contact than the man.
e)     The Asian try to understand a person through sense perception and they go quite close to a person but the Americans try to understand through gestures.
f)      The Asian students show respect to the teacher by breaking the direct eye contact with the teacher there as the western students maintains it through direct eye contact.
Main theme
          Where do you stand? Is an essay by Lisa Davis in which she is focusing on the importance of intercultural studies, specially the location of the body. It is obvious the meaning of the body differs from culture to culture group to group within a country even between the gender and so on, there is a greater chance at misunderstanding about body position and consequently there is a disaster in order to prevent the misunderstanding at the detail It is necessary to study inter-cultural practices.
          In the present time the entire world has became a global village and the people have earn inter-cultural practices to avoid the possible misunderstanding, specially the people of business world are prone to each misunderstanding. They have to deal with people from different world and might be showing the sense of intimacy but the same manner might be unnatural for the others.For example holding hands is a sign of showing affection to the other in the eastern culture but they look really unnatural in American culture , similarly making on eye contact with the teacher or concern person is a sign of respect in American cultural Whereas it is a sign of disrespect in eastern culture. If a Nepalese student those to Americans classes he finds the classroom environment really strange unless he is given the version of intercultural studies.
          Therefore the unlike justifies the need for inter-culture studies has became essential part in the modern situation especially with globalization. It would be much easier for the people of alliance culture to appreciate the culture of the other people of they know that keeping physical intimacy and despair differs from people to people.


AMERICAN VALUES AND ASSUMPTION

                                                                            Gary Althen
The main point
Individualism:
          The most important thing to understand about Americans is probably their devotion to individualism. They are trained from many early in their views to consider themselves as separate individuals who are responsible for their own situations in life and their own destinies.
Competition:
          Individualistic Americans neutrally see themselves as beings in competition with others competitiveness pervades the society. It is obvious in the attention given to athletic events and star athletes who are praised for being real competitors.
Privacy:
          Also closely associated with the value they place an individualism is the importance American assign to privacy. Americans assume that people “need some time to them” or “some time alone” to think about things or recover their spent psychological energy.
Equality:
          Americans are also instinctive in the degree to which they believe in the ideal as stated in their declaration of independence that all men are created equal.
Informality:
          The sense of equality makes the Americans to be informal we rarely see the Americans being in formal dress up. They use slang o address each other they never show to the serious. They attend the public ceremonies even in casual dress.
The future, change and progress:
          The American ignores the past and focus in future. Look ahead is their main slogan. They never regret for the past but see the future besides they believe in changed though the effort of the people. They believes that time is under the control of human beings.
Time:
          For the American “motion is progress and labor is money. They appreciate the people who make well use of time well organized people get social respect.
Achievement, action work and materialism:
          For the Americans a person is more important than who the person belongs to the work that a person does aspects are ignored.
Directness and assertiveness:
          The Americans are opening minded and they speak directly to others. Besides they are clever mined and devoted to their works.
Los Pobres
-Richard Rodriguez
In this autobiographical story, the writer expresses his own experience as a construction worker. In order to experience the pain and pleasure of the ‘real work’, he joins the summer work but he is unable to feel the real experience of “Los Pobres” i.e poor and powerless. Only after seeing the pathetic condition of the Mexican Migrant workers, he realizes the real condition as well as exploitation of Los Pobres.
In this autobiographical story, the writer speaks for the rights of Los Pobres i.e the poor and powerless people. Although this story is related with the writer himself, there is a great empathy with the working class people for the writer himself tried to feel the real experience of the hard work. Besides, the writer, in the beginning thought that the workers were different from what his mother told him about but later he realized that the real workers were truly poor and powerless.
During his graduation, the writer was in search of the summer job and one of his friends suggested him that he should get a job as a worker. In fact, the writer would like to experience the suffering of the ‘real work’ because he would like to show his father that he even had the experience of it. During his interview with the contractor, the writer aid that he had the experience of physical labor though he had never worked physically in his life. Undoubtedly the people have told him that the physical the physical labour was beyond his capacity but he enjoyed the work very much. Moreover, unlike his expectations, he found the workers not being ‘Los Pobres’ but being middle class as well as like himself. He was ever surprise that the workers were not of similar interest and skills even though they were daily wage labours. They had diverse interest and skills for example some of them were abstract painters where as some others were poet and the writers.
The writer, in the beginning felt that he had got the experience of the ‘real work’ but later he realized that an educated person could never feel the real experience of the Mexican Migrant work as made him realized that they lack public identity remain completely and they were the people falling apart. Due to the lack of proper communication and the language, problem they were acting like the puppet in the command of their contractor. Moreover, they were unaware of the minimum human rights and consequently they were victimized rudely. Their quietness was the indication of how helpless they were in the foreign land. Their sweating face and the hard harsh body really invited the sympathy from the writer. He obviously got the answer which he was searching for from his childhood. He clearly knew that he could never be the ‘Los Pobres’.
This story is very powerful not only in depicting the life of the poor and powerless but also in advocating for their rights. Indirectly, the writer speaks for the poor and the powerless people and against their exploitation by the employers. Despite being an autobiographical story, this story is able to generalize the common experience of the working people. Similarly this story changes the perspective of the people towards the working class people. Instead of heretic and mockery, they deserve love and respect.

The Rage To Know
-Horace Freeland Judson
In this essay, the writer explains the various reasons for which the scientists are involved in their professions including challenges, exhibitions, discoveries and pleasures. They believe that they can put themselves apart through the scientific endeavors.
In this essay, the writer tries to dig out the causes behind the involvement of the scientists in their profession. In fact it is the moment of truth that motivates them to remain in the profession. The scientific discoveries are not only clear but it is also beautiful. As a result, the scientists are eager to remain in their profession and give the society something new. Besides the scientist also know that there is unity in diversity. They always try to find out a binding element among the diverse things.
Obviously, there are numbers of hurdles, dissatisfaction as well as frustration. However, the pride is still keeping himself apart from the peer as well as the sense of competition always motivate the scientist for their hard work. Moreover, curiosity and passion for work are inevitable part of the scientist. Once they stop their work, they don’t live it until they get a satisfactory conclusion. Along with other motivation, there is an impulse of the rage to know. Every scientist has strong thirst for knowledge which is not quenched until he gets something for which he can feel pride for. Similarly, there is a pleasure motive in the discovery of the scientist. Whenever they see a new thing and unending curiosity gets born in them and consequently they get pleasure out of it.
Though this essay is concerned with the scientist and their devotion and determination to their world, as a whole, this essay tries to inspire the people that despite the frustration and difficulties, now have to do his work, feeling tremendous leisure the devoted world or labor one can draw a good reserve.

Our Schedules Our Selves
-Jay Walljasper

In this essay, the writer advocates for the free use of time. He hates the idea of schedule life and recommends for the magical spontaneous moments that provide the real bliss of life. As soon as a person breaks up his schedule, he gets freedom and he is able to achieve unimaginative happiness.
Due to the so-called modernity, the life of the people has been burdened with hectic factors like work and routine. As a result, a modern man has become the slave of time. Obviously, the time is limited but the person has to do unlimited works. From morning to evening, the person is busy in following his schedule and tired up his work. It is very rare that a person gets time. As a result a person is deprived of the real pleasure that his life offers to him.
“We are bigger than our schedules” said Paulo and he was absolutely right. We are not born for being slave of time. In the name of the following the pace of time, we are trying to fly with it and consequently we have been enslaved. Besides, the concept of part of time jobs, single parents, two workers at home, the increase in the so-called standard of life, etc. are responsible for making us the slave of our schedules.
The writer suggests the people not to work overtime as well as not to have over desire. The so called options always drag a person to slavery. Therefore, a person should put some time for the unprepared schedules that he could feel the real bliss of life.
The writer doesn’t mean that we should not do our routine work but his anger is towards the over hectic life due to the so-called material prosperity. Moreover, he intends to make the people aware that unplanned schedules empower a person or reutilize him immediately. So it is necessary to break up the schedules time and again.

Someone Is Stealing Your Life
-Michael  Ventura
In this essay, the writer describes the exploitation, lack of freedom and the lack of authority that the most workers of the U.S.A. experience. The writer strongly advocates for the situation in which the workers are free to express their ideas, contribute in the decision making and get the finally atmosphere for working.
In this essay, the writer strongly advocates for the rights of working class people especially of the USA. The writer doesn’t mean that the workers should get equal profit and authority. However, he believes that the employers don’t have the rights to exploit or rub the like of the worker. At least, there must be the value of the workers contribution and his voice should be heard and included in decision making process.
Out of 52 weeks, a worker gets only two weeks paid holiday. In that sense, out of 6 years of servile, a worker gets only 12 weeks of his own. It is hardly 3 months. Similarly, it is a worker who stands for the company. In other words, workers are the life line of any company. But the tragically, the workers don’t have any decision making power. In a sense, they are just the puppet of their employers. They are almost treated as slaves.
According to the writer, the owner has taken the greatest risk of investing their money in the business. So obviously they must get a greater amount of profit. But the fact is that they must not exclude the workers from the authority. Truly speaking, the workers have every right to know about their company, their product and the decision which are being taken. However, it is the workers who are victimized mostly when the company is bankrupted by the wrong decision.
The writer of this essay seems to be making a radical statement that the workers should get some share in the company in which they work. His ideas are not beyond criticism however his main argument is that the workers should get friendly atmosphere for their work and their contribution or the price of their sweat must be paid. Besides, he also encourages the worker to work against the injustice and work for their betterment. He also challenges the employers if they expect their workers to be passive and dance according to their time, it would be their greatest error.


BA 2nd Year Question [set A]


Compulsory English (202)
Level: Bachelor / II Year / Humanities
New Course
Attempt ALL the questions.
Group "A"

1.      Read the following passage and answer the questions given below: [15]
In most discussions of environmental issues, it is generally assumed that environmental problems have affected only contemporary societies. Consider, for example, the damage to the ecology and to human health from the use of toxic pesticides, which emerged as an issue during the later decades of the twentieth century. Similarly, acid rain and air pollution are, to a great extent, the result of the burning of fossil fuel, which has characterized economic development since the early nineteenth century. However, an examination of history reveals that the negative impact of human activities on the environment goes back much further than the last two hundred years.
One of the most environmentally significant events in history was the development of agriculture approximately ten thousand years ago. Agriculture involved a massive disruption of natural ecosystems. As humans cleared areas to provide fields for crops and domesticated animals, they eliminated the native vegetation, disturbing the process by which natural nutrients were recycled back into the soil. As a result, humans had to intervene in order to sustain the new system, usually by providing water and fertilizing material.
            Questions:
a.      What the main idea of the first paragraph?
b.      What was the main cause of the interference of natural ecosystem?
c.       What caused the burning of fossil fuel and the use of toxic pesticides?
d.      What is the main theme of the last paragraph?
e.      How were native vegetation jettisoned?
2.      What are the causes of environmental crisis? How can we climb out of the crisis? Write an essay in which you explain your ideas on the topic.
OR
If you are studying English in your native country: In addition to learning your language, what are the most important social behaviors you would advise English speakers to learn in order to get along well in your culture.
3.      In the following sentences, circle the View Markers and highlight the opinions.     5
a.      Although the governments would like you to believe that its programs are helping the economy to recover, unemployment continues to rise and investment is falling.
b.      Most people who have not lived in cultures other than their own assume that the rules for polite speech and behavior are universal.
c.       Relation between the company and its workers worsened after the employees charged that the company wanted to destroy their union.
d.      Among Americans, a common perception is that most immigrants enter the United States illegally.
e.      People who watch a great deal of the television tend to perceive the world as more violent than it really is.
4.      Complete the following sentences with the words given below.       5
Fertile              efficient                       climate                        roots                arid                  evaporate
a.      Irrigation can change________ land into productive farmland.
b.      In an attempt to make their land more _____________, Aral Sea farmers used chemicals that ultimately damaged the soil.
c.       Our new air- conditioning system is much more_________ than the one it replaced.
d.      The _________ in some areas of the United States is quite extreme, with hot summers and very cold winters.
e.      The _____of this plant does not reach into the soil. That's why it will not grow in regions with little rainfall.
5.      Write down the words for the following meanings:                          5
a.      The condition that is caused by the bacteria or a virus in the body.
b.      To give people something that is needed.
c.       Containing dangerous bacteria, viruses or poisons.
d.      To calculate something without having exact information.
e.      To think that something is smaller than it really is.
Group "B"
6.      Read the following passage and write a long paragraph response on it. [10]
When parents watch TV with their young children, explaining new words and ideas to them, the children comprehend far more than they would if they were watching alone. This is due partly to the fact that when kids expect that TV will require thought, they spend more time thinking. What's ironic is that most parents use an educational program as an opportunity to park their kids in front of the set and do something in another room. "Even for parents who are generally wary of television," Anderson says, "Sesame Street is considered a show where it's perfectly okay to leave a child alone." The program was actually intended to be viewed by parents and children together, he says.
Because our attitudes inform TV viewing, Anderson applauds the nascent trend of offering high school courses that teach students how to "decode" television. In these classes, students learn to analyze the persuasion techniques of commercials, compare the reality of crime to its dramatic portrayal inquire into the economics of broadcasting, and understand the mechanics of TV production. Such courses, Anderson contends, teach the kind of critical thinking central to the purpose of education. "Kids can be taught as much about television as about text or computers," he says.
7.      Write any five essentials of writing introductions of essays.             [5]
8.      Focus on the ways in which you have been influenced, positively and negatively, by traditional gender roles and expectations.
OR
Discuss your personal definition of success, material or otherwise, in your professional and/or private life. What does success mean to you? How do you hope to achieve it?   [10]
9.      Analyze the qualities of good teachers and/or good students. Consider such things as goals, values, teaching and learning styles, behaviors, and character traits.
OR
Do you think you are satisfied with where you are, how you are and what you are with reference to the education system that is prevailed in our culture? [10]
10.  Complete the following chart with the equivalent male or female term. [0.5x10]
Female
Male
Lady
Widower
Spinster
Sissy
Housewife
Host
Nurse
Chairman
Stewardess
Wizard

11.  Examine the ways in which a particular technology or form of mass media has been a Faustian bargain – a situation in which something is gained and lost at the same time.
OR
Write two or three paragraphs discussing whether you think Gardner's and Goleman's concepts of intelligence are reflected in the educational system of our country. Focus on curriculum, assessment of students' knowledge and skills. [10]