Wednesday, July 30, 2014

Tribhuvan University English B.B.S first Year 2014, 2071 Note & Reference for Com.

skip to main | skip to sidebar Note & Reference for Com. English B.B.S first Year
Table of Contents

1.      A 1996 Commencement Speech                      Salman Rushdie                      

2.      A Sound of Thunder                                        Ray Bradbury             
3.      Telegram on the Table                                                 Parashu Pradhan                     
4.      Stopping by woods on a snowy eveing                       Robert Frost                            
5.      Where the Mind is Without Fear                      Rabindranath Tagore  
6.      Piano                                                               D.H. Lawrence                      
7.      The Lunatic                                                     Laxmi Prasad Devkota
8.      Gaia                                                                 Shreedhar Prasad Lohani        
9.      The Making of a Scientist                                V. S. Ramachandran               
10.  Third Thoughts By                                           E.V Lucas                              
11.  A Tale                                                              B.P. Koirala                            
12.  The Great Answer                                            Fulton Oursler            
13.  King John and the Abbot of Canterbury          Anonymous                            
14.  The Stub Book                                                 Pedro Antonio de Alarcon      
15.  Why Go To University?                                   Moti Nissani                          
16.  Marriage is a private affair                               Chinua Achebe, Nigeria          
17.  Arranging  a marriage in  India                        Serena Nanda             
18.  Then and Now: Finding My Voice                   Elaine H. Kim            
19.  TV Can Be a Good Parent                               Ariel Gore                               
20.  Surely You're Joking, Mr. Feynman!               Richard P. Feynman with Ralph Leighton
21.  Life Is Sweet at Kumansenu                            Abioseh Nicol                         
22.  Mr. Know All                                                  W. Somerset Maugham           
23.  How Sane Are We?                                         Anuradha Chaudhary 
24.  To His Coy Mistress                                        Andrew Marvell                      
25.  “What Is Intelligence, Anyway?”                     Isaac Asimov                          
26.  EthicsEEBottom of Form                                                               Linda Pastan                           
27.  Scientific Inquiry: Invention and Test             Carl Hempel                           
28.  The Wretched Stone                                        Van Allsburg                          
29.  Keeping Errors at Bay                                      Bertrand Russell                     
30.  Yudhisthira's Wisdom                                      Source: The Mahabharat         
31.  The Brave Little Parrot                                     Buddhist Legend                     
32.  If Not Higher                                                   I.L Peretz                                
33) The Parrot in the Cage                                    Lekhanath Poude
      34) A"Don’t Cut Down the Trees,
Brother Woodcutter" by                                 Michael James Hutt
      35) No Smoke From the Chimneys (Please prepare yourself)
      36) The Clock Tower (Please prepare yourself)
      37)New Year (Please prepare yourself)
            Some Question sets

A 1996 Commencement Speech

                                                            Salman Rushdie
It is a speech given by Rushdie to graduate students at Bard College. Rushdie feels happy because all of the graduate students of Bard college are present and listing his speech instead of boycotting. Rushdie shares his own graduation day at Cambridge University. A few nights before his graduation day, someone hurled bucketful gravy of onions all over the walls and furniture in his room. He had not done it. But he had to pay for the damage before the ceremony if not he would not be permitted to graduate. It was his mistake to be responsible for the mess which he had not done. Next, he went to ceremony wearing brown shoes. But he was instantly plucked out of the parade and made him wear black shoes. He did what he was ordered to get graduation. And, at last, he had to kneel at vice chancellors feet, hold up his hands, palm together and beg in Latin for the degree. He had work hard for three years. So, it was his right to get degree. But he did all those all things which were ordered him by the college. Now he realizes his mistake that he was wrong to compromise with injustice. The injustice that he accepted in his college life to get graduation tortures when he remembers those days.
But Rushdie tells that he was very happy for three years when he was at Cambridge and he guesses that the students at Board Collage might feel the same. In his speech, Rushdie Advises the graduate students not be like him to accept the injustice. He encourages them to defy even the gods if they try to limit and control their thought and life. He gives many examples from the myths that how people objected the power of gods. Queen Niobe of Thebes told people not to worship Latona which they had not seen but to worship who stood before their eyes. The gods murdered her children and husband. Prometheus stole fire from the gods and gave it to mankind. He was bound to a rock where the birds bit his liver. The myths proved that great human being challenged the gods and were ready to get punishment. They were guided by their own thought. He suggests the graduate student not to bow their head in front of the power. They must defy even the god if he is not good. They must enjoy their freedom and rights. If anyone tries to capture their rights, they must revolt against it. They should be ready for a suffering because of their objection. Education is a symbol of freedom and right. So, educated people must challenge the wrong ideas.
In Points
Commencement Address at Bard College, May 25th, 1996 by Salman Rushdie
• Rushdie’s Research into Commencement and its traditions
• His graduation from Cambridge 1968-the great year of student protest
• Few nights before his graduation day- his room was redecorated/made dirty with thick gravy onion sauce
• Rushdie was charged for this and announced his deprivation from joining graduation ceremony.
• Paid for the damage and got eligible to receive the degree but plucked out for his wearing brown shoes in place of black ones.
• He had to stay in the parade, hold university officer by his hand, kneel at Vice-Chancellor’s feet, hold up his hands and beg for degree in Latin( dead language acc. To him) /Got the degree.
• He was not satisfied with his act: since he surrendered to get the degree/Ultimately he admits that he was wrong to compromise.
• So he inspires the students of Bard College not to make an accommodation with injustice as he did.
• He encouraged the students to stand up for their rights/kneel before no man , to gain much being happy
• He was offered honorary degree from Bard college giving place to intellectual solidarity and human concern./so got exceptional privilege of addressing the students of Bard College.
• He believes defiance an inevitable and essential aspect of freedom. /Advises to defy any kind of gods.
• Focus on self rule-the rule of men and women by men and women.
• His advices: we must be guided by our natures; we shouldn’t bow our heads; we shouldn’t bow our heads.
• The writer has stated the conflict between young Rushdie and old Rushdie.
• Young Rushdie: submissive, surrendering, compromising to receive the degree
Old Rushdie: aggressive, attacking, admitting that he did mistake by receiving the degree by bowing his head.
• Focus on defying/Defiance is an inevitable and essential aspect of freedom.
• Has severely criticized the system of organizing traditional graduation ceremony where recipients have to bow their head/feel humiliated to receive the degree.
• The writer has come heavily upon the common truth that Cambridge University had the tradition of fairness and justice which was proved wrong from his own experience.
Critical Thinking:
The writer’s argument seems to be convincing but at times some questions come into our mind:
• Simply for the reason of ‘gravy and onion’ issue, how can one university deprive a student of getting a degree?
•Bowing to receive a degree has become an old fashioned now.
• If the writer was so much conscious about his freedom, why did he tolerate the injustice done to him?
• He instigates us to defy gods which is almost against our right/freedom.
• How can defiance be essential aspect of freedom? Doesn’t it give rise to violence?
• The writer on his part surrenders/then why does he give lessons to others?

Salman Rushdie in his commencement speech at Brad College took his audience back to the Cambridge University from where he had completed his graduation in 1968. It was just a few nights before his graduation day when someone redecorated his room with a bucket of sauce all over the walls and furniture. Though the Cambridge University was reputed for the ancient tradition of fairness and justice, Rushdie was found guilty for the mess. It was the first time Rushdie was accused of muckspreading. He was declared eligible to receive degree after he had paid for the damage. In a defiant spirit, he went to the ceremony wearing brown shoes. But he was plucked out of the parade and ordered to change his shoes because brown shoes were not allowed to wear on such occasions. Changing his shoes, he joined the parade. When his turn came, he was instructed to knell at the feet of Vice Chancellor and begin Latin for the degree. He found it very unusual because he had worked hard for 3 yrs supported by his family. After all these formalities, he was finally admitted to the degree of arts.
Looking back at the day he regrets his passivity. He should not have paid. Neither should he have changed his shoes, and nor he should have knelt to beg for his BA. He, at that time preferred to surrender and get the degree. He was wrong to compromise. He was even wrong to make an accommodation with injustice.
This was the message he delivered from the parables of unknown Gravy bomber, the vetoed foot wear and the unsteady Vice-Chancellor upon his throne which he wanted to pass on to them that day.
Rushdie suggested the members of the class of 1996 defying such a penalty as gravy abuse the vetoed foot wear and going down on their knees before a man. He advised the graduates to develop themselves as avenging figures like goddess Nemesis. To him defiance was an essential aspect of freedom. He noted the graduates that their future days should be determined to fight against of all sorts’ gods because all of them demanded to be worshipped and obeyed. Rushdie advised to defy them because; myths say by defying gods human beings have best expressed their humanity. According to the Greek stories Prometheus had combative sentiment which gave rise to humanism.
Prometheus stole the fire from god and gave it to human kind; which could be characterized as the desire for progress, for improved scientific and technical capabilities. Certainly defying of gods involves personal interests. For example, Arachne competed with goddess out of pride. Minerva was vindictive, Niobe fought against Latona for cruel rule of gods. They all challenged the role of gods to promote the rule of human. The gods are weakened by their show of strength and power. The message of myths was that we should behave ourselves and know ourselves and that we must be guided by our nature. Finally, Rushdie advised the graduates not to bow their heads, not to know their place, and defy the gods and be guided by better nature.
From this text, I have come to understand that we should not surrender ourselves to injustice. We should fight for freedom where our progress is. All the old traditions and trends should be replaced by new and progressive ones.
Critical Thinking on "A 1996 Commencement Speech (Salman Rushdie)"
There are few contradictions in between what young Salmon thought about preservation of his liberty and the manner he compromised with the disgusting Cambridge principles while obtaining the degree with his body down at the knees below the Vice-Chancellor who seemed very likely to drop direct over him from the high placed chair. In a sense, he did right by following all of the University principles as the price for making himself eligible to be conferred with a degree. Otherwise, no value system of higher education could be substantiated unless the individuals resigns himself to the established principles handed down as the legacy from the long past in a way of giving credit to those who paved the course for the development of educated culture.
Though Salman surrendered his individual liberty in receiving the degree, he regrets later and feels very sorrowful for being forced to do so and compromise with repulsive Cambridge traditions and show passivity before gods and the university authorities. In this light, any type of defiance is a counter to the established value system followed as a legacy for ages to achieve the educational goal. So, if no respect is shown for academic formalities established in the past, that would prove to be a great weakness and result merely in causing social chaos and endangering base of human culture honoring the seniors and being safeguarded by seniors and authorities.
Salman reacts negatively even about the things he did to serve his purpose but addresses the audience not to and says nothing about the duties to be fulfilled by the degree earners. He should fully know that no human right can be ensured or practiced without fulfilling the corresponding duties in a way as expressing "thanks" to those who show favor to the other. Of course, this practice doesn't prevail among the beasts always centered for the fulfillment of personal needs. And we know education flourishes only through the practice of mutual care and respect. Keeping the same in mind, the teachers teach and the scholars guide those who come to be guided or instructed.
Salman details largely about pros and cons of Cambridge University from where he graduated but ignores almost to highlight the academic greatness of Southampton University. He simply shows his indebtedness to the University for honoring him with an opportunity to give 96th Commencement Speech and extends gratitude to the President of the Bard, who offered him a position of teaching in the Department of English even during the crucial moments of his life.
To the rationalists and the scientific men, religion is moral code of conduct. They want it to be applied by all men and women for mutual welfare, trust, and happiness. So, they are against the purpose of 'organized religion' characterized these days by blind faith and as means for the power mongers to exploit the ignorant and exert the power over those who are powerless for the fulfillment of their false-ego. Maybe holding for similar ideas, Salman was declared as an atheist and condemned to death by Mullahs as Thomas Becket and Martin Luther King for their fair attempt to stand up against religious repression. So, as the educationists with free mind, Mr. Feynman, Riva Palacio or Rushdie would not show regard for distorted conventional wisdom and for 'organized religion' characterized now by blind faith, irrational beliefs, power grabs, ulterior motives of greedy ministers, a lack of love and no personal respect.
A Sound of Thunder
Ray Bradbury
Plot (Literal Comprehension)
The story is set in 2055. A hunter named “Eckels” goes on the adventure of a lifetime: travelling back into the past on a prehistoric safari to kill a Tyrannosaurus Rex. As the participants wait to depart, they chat about the recent presidential elections, in which an apparently fascist candidate, Deutscher, has just been defeated by the more moderate Keith, to the relief of many people.
After the party arrives in the past, Travis (the hunting guide) and Lesperance (Travis's assistant) warn Eckels and the two other hunters, Billings and Kramer, about the necessity of minimizing their effect on events when they go back, since tiny alterations to the distant past could snowball into catastrophic changes in history. The hunters must stay on a path to avoid disrupting the environment and only kill animals which were going to naturally die at the same time.
Despite his earlier eagerness to begin the hunt, Eckels loses his nerve at the sight of the T Rex. Travis tells him he cannot leave, but Eckels panics and veers off the path. The two guides kill the dinosaur, and shortly afterward, the tree that would have killed the dinosaur in the absence of human intervention falls on the corpse. Travis' elation quickly changes to fury when they find Eckels and see his muddy boots, which prove he went off the path. Travis threatens to leave Eckels in the past unless Eckels removes the bullets from the dinosaur’s body, as they cannot be left behind.
Upon returning to the present, Eckels notices subtle changes. English words are now spelled strangely, people and buildings are different and, worst of all, Deutscher has won the election instead of Keith. Looking through the mud on his boots, Eckels finds a crushed butterfly, whose death was apparently the cause of the changes. He pleads to Travis to take him back into the past to undo the damage, but Travis refuses and fires his rifle. It is left untold what he shoots, although it is presumed that he kills Eckels. The dark ending reveals that the title not only refers to the "sound of thunder" made by the T-Rex —the story’s final words are, “There was a sound of thunder.”
On the eve of an American presidential election, a party of rich businessmen undertakes a time travel safari to the past to hunt dinosaurs. While the organizers have taken every precaution to minimize the impact of the hunting party on the past, one member violates the rules and leaves the designated path. Upon their return to the present the group finds that the world has been drastically altered by the seemingly innocuous death of a pre-historic butterfly.
The encounter with the Tyrannosaurus forms the heart of the story with Bradbury’s eloquent prose transporting the reader along with the hunting expedition sixty-million years into the past.
Bradbury’s tale serves not only to entertain but also to speculate on the dangers of time travel. His illustration of a ripple effect on the timeline caused by a seemingly unrelated events over a long period of time is not only demonstrated by the climax of the story, but is also explained in the context of the story.
While Bradbury does an excellent job illustrating the point, he tends to over simplify the ripple effect since he assumes the timeline to be static and that by removing the mouse from the equation a void is created that multiplies up the timeline. It seems more likely that true effect might be equally as dramatic, but unfolding over time in a much more dynamic way. Using Bradbury’s example a lack of mice might mean something other than the fox evolves and thrives on the land, or perhaps the fox adapts to another food source altogether.
The climax of the story involves the return of the hunting party to the office of Time Safari Inc. which still oddly enough still exists, but the language has evolved differently.
But the immediate thing was the sign painted on the office wall, the same sign he had read earlier today on first entering. Somehow, the sign had changed:
More importantly they discover that the presidential election has been influenced and that the fascist candidate Deutscher was elected president instead of the moderate candidate.
While dramatically effective, the ending virtually contradicts Bradbury’s earlier example of the ripple effect and the mouse. The ending suggests that while the players remain the same, namely the presidential candidates Keith and Deutscher, that their environment and the evolution of the human language has been influenced.
It's an interesting coincidence that Bradbury chose a butterfly to symbolize the chaotic effect multiplied over time. The term Butterfly Effect did not originate with this tale, but rather was coined after MIT research meteorologist Edward Lorenz who discovered in the early 1960s that small variations in his computer model caused wildly divergent results. Lorenz later went on to write a seminal paper on Chaos Theory based on his experience.
Neither Bradbury's time travelers nor the accident prone Homer J. Simpson could predict what consequences their actions would have, but suffice it to say that all actions have consequences big and small. If you are time travelling it might be wise to stay on the path to avoid changing history, but looking forward we should do the opposite. There is no telling how one small action can change the world for the better. As an example, Rosa Parks likely knew the immediate consequences of her actions of refusing to give up her seat on a bus that fateful day on December 1, 1955, but not the far reaching consequences that would come out of it.

"A Sound of Thunder" is a science fiction short story by Ray Bradbury. The story is about a man named Eckels who is a passionate hunter. Eckels travels back in time to kill a dinosaur but his actions alter the balance of nature and he changes the future. The author uses a series of unique describing techniques, which make this story full of surprises. In "A Sound of Thunder", Ray Bradbury presents the fact how the small act of human beings at present can change the future drastically. It gives the idea that the "Sound of Thunder" is the consequence of messing with nature and its power, and from breaking the balance in time. The author tries to describe the nature as the delicate and very sensitive thing and he means to say "don't mess with nature and don't break the balance in time". So the author requests us to use the natural resources properly and wisely so that our exploitation over the nature doesn't create destruction in the future. The writer's main concern over nature in "A Sound of Thunder" is the way human are misusing the natural resources will surely lead to the drastic devastation in the near future so to avoid them, we should learn to properly mobilize these resources.
Telegram on the Table
Parashu Pradhan
Literal Comprehension:-
Krishna had come in the city from the village. He worked as a guide for tourist. All the day, all the days he was busy explaining the entire history of the country to the tourist and answering their question, He had a dream of going to America following a tourist girl. He always used to come late at night in his room from hotel being tired. A telegram had been lying on the table for weeks. There was a message that his wife had died previous day. But the message of his wife’s death did not touch him at all. The telegram should have made him weep. He should have felt regret. He should have fasted for some days. But he didn’t do any anything. The telegram should have affected him. But he was not sad and nothing touches him. He was happy dreaming of America.
His living room was bad. He paid high rent but there was no facility. If he could not get up early in the morning, he would not get water. He wanted to move somewhere else. And he could invite Miss pandey from travel service for dinner. His best friend from his village, who was also in the city, knew about the tragic event and gave him sympathy. But the words of sympathy did not touch him at all. But one night, he could not sleep. He switched the light on and went to the table and read the telegram again. The message touched him. He regretted because he had become heartless like a stone. He got angry with himself, tore the telegram into pieces and cried for a long time. Krishna was an ambitious boy. He came to Kathmandu leaving his parents wife and village. He had a colorful dream about learning English. Of course, he learnt English and worked as tourist guide. He spent 10 years without going home. He wanted to forget his village and family. He only lost himself in a thought of going to a foreign land. He dreamed of following an American girl who would take him to her country and he would enjoy with her there. He totally left the real track of his life. He did not care about his beautiful village and dear parents and wife.  Probably, he remembered the good deeds of his wife and his stone heart melted and flood of tears came from his eyes because of his wife's memory. Suddenly, he became angry with the death and began to cry. At last he returned to the real life and the separation of his wife gave him great grief.
The story may be trying to say that a person can’t be happy forgetting his village and dearest relatives. He has to regret in the future like Krishna. This story tried to show the picture of the present Nepalese society. How young generation is being attracted by America. They are ready to abandon anything for America. Nepalese people are made senseless and heartless by the so-called modern thinking and way of living. This story may be trying to tell us that people who have come to the town from village want to forget their beautiful village, loving family and home. They dream of going to foreign country to earn more money, marry with a foreigner and live happily. They never want to return home. If they are married in the village, they feel their wives burden of their shoulder. The death of their wives gives them pleasure. Life in the city is very artificial. People easily leave the way of reality and sink in beautiful dream of comfortable life.
Critical Thinking:-
The story is realistic, heart touching, beautiful and interesting. This all does not mean that it is flawless. There are many things to be understood, realized, analyzed and applied in our everyday life. How can husband totally be untouched by his wife’s deaths? The writer had not given any clue that they had a bad conjugal life. So, why Krishna did not think about his wife and family? These all questions are looking for right answers. Needless to, people become selfish after they come to the town. But can a husband forget his wife because of his colorful dream? Isn't a husband touched by the death of his wife? Should a man forget his past completely? Isn't worldly life momentary? Are migrated people to the town really stone hearted? Does a married man really gain natural love and respect from his second wife? So, I don't totally agree with the writer. The story does not apply to everyone's life. This is the case of particular people.
I got cursory reading first and second I gave in depth reading it. I found many things in this story to be applied, realized in our everyday life. I came to realize how people vanish in the city. They leave their village and family for the better future. But when they reach in to city, they are enchanted by modernity and slowly they start forgetting their family. They don’t come to meet their family in the village for a long time.
This story took me back to a selfish boy who lives in Kathmandu at this time. Actually he is from a remote village of Nepal. Some years ago, he lived with his family happily. He was well to do in the village but he left his home and family to earn more money in Kathmandu. Kathmandu attracted him badly and he could not leave it. He even forgot his family, village, friend s and culture. One day, he got a letter about his wife's serious illness. He was requested to bring her to Kathmandu for treatment. But he didn't care. After some weeks he got telegram about her death. That day some changes could be seen on his face. Tears were running down on his face continuously probably he remembered his happy past life with his wife.
Stopping by woods on a snowy evening
By Robert Frost
Literal Comprehension:
Robert Frost is one of the famous American romantic writers. The present poem,' Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening' is one of the best-known poems by Frost. Romantic writers write on the theme of ‘Nature’. For them, nature is god, a teacher and has both capacities to create and destroy. This is a very short poem consisting of four stanzas where Frost presents a beautiful landscape of snowy evening. He begins his poem with an indirect question: whose woods are these? The answer is vivid that the wood belongs to the God himself. The capitalization of the pronoun ‘He’ also makes us easy to understand the fact that the owner of the wood is God. The speaker of the poem is riding on a horse. He is a traveler. In fact, he is on his way of certain destination but the beauty of snowy environment makes him stop his horse and see the beauty of nature. He is sure that the owner of the wood would not see him. Therefore, he can get the pleasure of the beauty as much as he wishes. At the same time, he looks at his horse and finds it as sensible as a man. He believes that the horse must have been surprised finding him stopping in such dark snowy environment in the midst of the forest. His horse shakes the bell to make him continue the journey. In the final stanza, when the bell of the horse makes him aware of his aim constantly, the poet leaves the beautiful and sublime place and continues his journey. The poet further informs us that the beauty of the very place was lovely, dark and deep but at the same time, he has so many responsibilities and obligations to fulfill before he goes to sleep i.e. his death. Hence, he cannot enjoy that beauty of the forest any longer as we, human beings can’t do. In the poem, the poet describes about his journey. It is an evening. He is riding a horse. He is alone in the deep and dark forest. The snow is falling. There is not any house nearby. The lakes are frozen and he does not hear any sound except snow falling and the wind. On the way through the beautiful forest, he is enchanted by the natural setting. So he stops his horse to enjoy with this environment. The horse rings its bell. It feels strange because there are not any houses or men then he feels that he has to go miles ahead before he sleeps. So he decides to continue his journey.
This poem may be trying to say that duty is more important than any things else. We have to carry our duty even if we feel it difficult. We will not have only enjoyment but will also have bitter moments in our lives. We must face those happiness and tragedy until we live in the world. We cannot avoid them because they are attached to our lives. 'Stopping by Woods a Snowy Evening' is a natural poem composed by Robert Frost. In this poem the poet has described how a man gets impressed by beautiful natural sight.
The poet is on his way home on his house in the snowy evening. There is a beautiful forest on the way and he stops the horse and himself to see its peace and beauty. The breeze and downy lake have added beauty to the peaceful forest. Being night there's no one to break this silence. Horse feels surprised for being stopped. There is not a farm house nearby and the darkness is growing. Now the poet can't stop more because he has promised to reach his goal before he sleeps.
The speaker of the poem is actually a representation of real human being. In reality, all of us are traveler in our life. It begins right from our birth and ends with our last breath. The forest is also symbolic here because it indicates the various attractive, luring events of our life, which try to make us forget our duty and responsibilities and enjoy our life on our own way. Similarly, the horse symbolizes the consciousness of the speaker’s mind. Whenever we meet something beautiful or pleasant events of our life, we become unconscious and tend to forget the tasks to our family, friends and the society. What reminds us our duty is certainly our conscious mind! In fact, all of us have the miles to go before we meet our ultimate friend death. Hence, the poem is a capable of presenting the beauty of nature on the one hand and the factual history of each human being on the other. The poet may be trying to tell us that peace and beauty can't be separated from life. Sometimes one can find unexpected peace and beauty on the way of one's long journey of life. In spite of the long journey, one stops to see the natural beauty. But one has to move to fulfill one's promise or responsibility before death. Responsibility is more important, lack and one should even neglect other things for the sake of duty and responsibility. In this poem the poet talks about sense of beauty and sense of duty. The poem is about human life and duty. Human life is full of obstacles and hardships. But one must be patient and courageous to overcome this to fulfill the promise of his/her life. If one fails to understand such aspect of life, he/she can never get success in his/her life. The poem can be interpreted symbolically by addressing such aspect which always tried to divert the human from their way of life. But man being conscious of it should continue his pace of life forgetting everything.
Critical Thinking:
Though the poem is able to capture the beauty of nature, it also raises some questions as we go through the poem. Life is to be lived and enjoyed but Robert Frost defines it only with the duties and responsibilities. Is our life just to travel miles after miles? Is not it to take some relaxation be in the lap of nature and feel the eternity? Of course it is. Similarly, the poet has looked the life in one perspective only. Nature is not the only beautiful things that everyone desires. There are other several products of modern science and technology which have become an inseparable part of modern world. They have become a source of entertainment and Frost does not talk on this fact. Frost makes an animal, horse, more intelligent than human being. Has a modern man become so dull that he needs an animal to remind his aim? Certainly not. Despite these questions, the poem is sweet, melodious and appealing. Natural beauty gives real pleasure to the spectators. But can beauty and peace disturb all people when they are making a long journey in a hurry? Do all people keep their promises? Can a man enjoy the beauty and peace in the snowing night when the chilly wind is blowing? Do all people fulfill their duty and responsibility before death? Can animal feel as human beings? can a man enjoy the peace and beauty in the dark if he is in a hurry? So, I couldn't totally agree with the poet. So far the poem talks about the human life and duty, it is very impressive. But in many respects, the speaker fails to give very convincing incidence such as how does the writer feel stopping at the lonely woods? Here the horse is shown as if it were giving information about the harshness of the climate. Is it possible for the horse to notice and inform about it? How does one travel along the path alone which is full of falling snow?
I visited Pokhara last year. It was the first time I had been in my maternal uncle’s home. The panoramic view of nature nourished my heart. The flight of the birds in the open, clean sky made me forget the essence of zoo in my hometown, Kathmandu. The reflection of Machhapuchhre in the crystal water of Phewa lake made me contemplate on the beauty of the Kailash Parvat, the abode of the Lord Shiva. The clear and fresh water of the streams provided a new energy in my veins. I wished I could live in such jocund company of nature longer. At the same time, my exam was approaching and I was forced to return Kathmandu and do my duties of preparing for the examination.
Nature really changes the mind of human being. There is a beautiful hill above my house. Last year I went to celebrate dashain festival with my family. On the way the bus broke down and I was late by three hours. When I reached the hill, it was twilight. I saw many beautiful scenes on the hill and I even forgot where I was going. The birds were twittering and a gentle air was blowing. I was a bit tired. It was getting dark. Although I would enjoy seeing the scene, I had to walk till three hours to reach home. At last, I left the beautiful scene and went home.
Where the Mind is Without Fear
Rabindranath Tagore
Literal Comprehension
"Where the mind is without fear" is a patriotic poem, composed by Rabindra Nath Tagore. The poet is inspired by the feeling of patriotism. Tagore has expressed his deep patriotic feeling in this poem. He wished his country to be taken into the heaven of freedom where one feels fearlessness and honored. He wants to make his country as the place where truth exists and people get perfection of work, where all people are reasonable with ever ending thoughts. Lastly, the poet prays the god to take his country to the heaven of freedom. This is a patriotic poem. The poet wishes that his mind would be fearless of anything else. He can hold his head high if there is no any fear. According to him, knowledge should be free and country should not be broken into fragments by the unseen domestic walls. He wishes that the people of his country would not lie to each other. They should be laborious to lead the nation towards the way of development. He wants his people to use their reason and creative thoughts to solve the problem. Thus he prays the god to make his country like heaven where there is only peace and freedom. The poem "Where the Mind Is without Fear" is a pleading poem in which the speaker is requesting the god almighty to guide his people and his country to the world of eternity where everything is free to everyone. The speaker wishes every freedom to his people and to the whole humanity. He wants to take his people to such land where people don't need to have any fear, where education to every people is free, where people live happily together without being divided into groups, where the people always head to the perfection. To get such Promised Land, the speaker pleads the god
The poet may be trying to tell us that fearlessness, knowledge, honor, wide mindedness, truth and reason are supremely important to take the country to the climax of prosperity. The poet has lost himself in the dream of heavenly country. He still find his country fallen into slumber and prays the god to let his country awake in such heaven of freedom. The poem is a patriotic poem considering the freedom and eternal happiness of life of the people as the most important factor. If people are deprived of such basic requirements, then there remains no place to feel the life. As a result, the society is full of social unjust and discrimination. Thus the poem asserts the fact that society must be free from all such social evils. For this, the speaker requests the god to create a very ideal and heavenly society.
Critical Thinking
It is the most admirable thought of a citizen to lead his county towards prosperity. But can people create such heavenly county in reality? Do all people have the same feelings as the poet? Can a single man take his country to such ideality if other people don't take it seriously? Can one really enjoy freedom in such threatened world by bomb? Is heaven a real place? So, I don't totally agree with the poet. The poem with a nationalistic feeling is successful to impress the reader. So far his point in the poem is concerned; we may not easily accept him. The country naturally consists of people of various castes and creeds, and in such situation, there arises various thoughts and ideas. So it is useless to talk about one nation. Similarly the poet seems too much spiritual and believing on the mercy of god. It, in no way, is acceptable in case of ruling the country as well as imposing the rule over the people. On the other hand, he pleads the divine power but up to now no man is blessed by him.
Freedom is lovelier than life. People want to fight for freedom if their rights are grabbed. This poem took me back to the  movement of 2007 B.S in Nepal. Before democracy came to Nepal, people were spending their sorrowful days in the darkness of autocracy Panchayat system. People could not speak and work freely. The corrupted leaders of that time tortured people without reason. Many people lost their lives for the sake of democracy. But conscious people began to struggle in all respect. They challenged the autocracy system and its rulers and the king was compelled to declare multiparty system. Thus, people could breathe in freedom. But democracy is still in danger due to the selfishness of the leaders of different political parties. Let's see what will happen in the future. As I read the poem, it has brought me back to the condition of Nepalese people under the rule of Ranas. During this period, Nepalese people couldn't get chance to read and write. Education had been too precious and expensive to them. People were too much suppressed by the rule that they were under the great fear of the Rana rule. They could do nothing except pleading the god for their freedom from such rule.
D.H. Lawrence
Literal Comprehension:-
There are two persons in the poem: The poet and woman. The woman is singing a song for the poet and also playing piano. Her beautiful song suddenly takes the poet back down the vista of years. He reached in his childhood. He remembers his mother and childhood. He finds himself as child sitting under the piano and pressing his mother's feet. His mother used to sing and play piano. She would smile at him. It is his past and he is grown up now. His present is totally different from his past. The woman who is singing a song makes him remember of the world Sunday evening. They used to sing hymns and piano were their guide. When poet starts thinking of his past, the present song of a woman turns to be useless. He doesn't want to listen the song being sung by the woman. Her music and song is sweet but his remembrance of far sweeter than that. Though his past is sweet and pleasing, he can't get it back even if he pays million and billion. His past has gone away forever and he can never reach there. So, he weeps like a child for his past throwing his manhood in the flood of remembrance.
Piano is a memory poem composed by David Herbert Lawrence. The poet has depicted his feelings from the memories of his childhood in this poem. Softly in the evening, a woman is singing a song to the poet. The song makes the poet sink deep in the recollection of his childhood days. He recalls the scene in which a child is sitting under the piano and his mother is playing the piano smiling at the poet. The child is innocently pressing the balanced small feet of a mother.
The poet has skillful efficiency of song but that has betrayed him back. He weeps and his heart pains. He remembers the past Sunday evenings. It was cold outside and there were hymns in the comfortable room.
Now, the song can't impress the poet and he thinks it is useless to burst into the clamor. He reaches his childhood days and helplessly sinks into floods of tears which come from his eyes.
The poem may be trying to focus that music has power. None can keep themselves away from music. Music can touch our hearts and it can make us remember of our past. Everyone wants to listen music. Music can melt our feelings and emotion. We are lost in the music it matches with our situation. The poem may also be showing that our childhood is very important period which we can never forget.
The poet may be trying to tell us that some memories give bad shocks to people of sentimental minds. Memory of the past is the basic theme of the poem ' Piano'. The poet remembers his childhood days of sitting at his mother's knee enjoying songs of his mother.
Fresh and the true love of his mother was heart touching for the poet and the music and song of the woman can't give him such pleasure as his mother because the poet has blown himself in the great flood of memory. So, he weeps bitterly while hearing the music and the song produced by the woman.
Critical Thinking:-
The poem is very beautiful and sweet to read but it arouses many questions in the mind of the reader. We can't be satisfied with the poem in many respects. The poet cries like a child for this past. Do we get our past if we cry? Does it seem natural for a man to weep like a child? Is the poet telling truth or exaggerating himself? Isn't he trying to get sympathy from readers by presenting himself as self-heartened man? He ignores the music which helps him to remember of his past. Should we be that much selfish? Naturally, the past memories give a great shock to a passionate (sentimental) person now and then, but some of the sayings of the poet are not agreeable to me (i) Does a man weep from such memory? (ii) Does the presence of singing women really betray people? (iii) Can the sweet music be clamor for the true love of music? (IV). Does a man remember the past if he is deeply in love with someone? So, I don't agree with the poet totally.
The poet loves his past in this poem. It is the music which takes him to his past. His wants to forget his present and wants to live in his past which is impossible. In the same way, when I see small children playing marble on the way to my campus, I also happen to remember my past, my childhood. I used to play marble and used to quarrel with my friends. Those days were very beautiful. I was not worried of anything. I will never get back those blissful moments. So, like poet, I also sometime happen to be sad for my past and childhood.
After reading this poem, I understood that past events can't be forgotten easily. Sometimes they greatly affect on the life of the person who remembers but the people of sentimental minds are much more affected than the average people. Tears themselves find their ways for the people of sentimental mind. However, I am greatly impressed by the poet's efficiency.
The Lunatic
 (Literal Comprehension and commentary)
                                                                                                              By Laxmi Prasad Devkota
In this poem, Devkota declares himself to be a lunatic. He goes on explaining his conditions in the poem. He says that he visualizes sound and hears the visible. He can taste fragrance and touch those things the existence of which the people deny. He goes on showing difference between him and the people in the society. He can do such things which a normal person can't do. He finds a flower in the stone. He speaks such language which can't be written printed nor can be spoken.
In his calculation one minus one is always one. He has six senses and has heart instead of brain. So, he gets Helen and Padmini in the rose. He is poetry whereas other people are prose. He tried to catch dream which is impossible for a normal one. Then he claims that he speaks with a mountain and basks the heat of stars in cold January month.
One day when he sang with tempos the so-called wise peoples took him to Ranchi for a treatment. He directly says that he does not praise those things which the world highly appreciates. For him, king is a pauper and he abuses Alexander the great. But he praises the common people and highly learned men are big fools for him.
Lunatic by Laxmi Prasad Devkota is one of the greatest poets of Nepali Literature. He is known with the many titles in this field. He is one of the pioneers of modernity in Nepali Literature. Certainly, he was a initiator of Romanticism in Nepali Literature. He was the one to raise the voice of the age long dominated marginal. people.
Devkota was born to Til Madhav Devkota and Amar Rajya Laxmi in 1909. His father was Sanskrit scholar. He was one of the most conscious citizens of his time. Though he was not an active politician but was a freedom fighter and lover of democracy. It was because of this nature of Devkota, the totalitarian Rana rulers were always against him. He was blamed even to be mad. Similarly, he was forced to go to Banaras. This poem is a response to those people who could understand the sentiment of the poet. But, we must not miss the point that the poet has presented lunacy as a kind of creativity, a capacity to see the reality in its deeper level. 
Devkota begins his poem expressing his some unique characteristics. He asserts that he can see the sound, hear the visible. Similarly, he can taste the smell. He has the potentiality to understand the language of chirping birds, murmuring stream. He could even communicate with the fairies that were looking at him. Similarly, he claims that he is a man of heart against those common people who are the man of mind. For them profit and loss matters but the poet says that the love sympathy counts to him. He satirizes the people who always think of earning gold by using some kinds of unfair means. He claims that such gold for him is mere iron.
Besides these aforementioned a bitter satire on social evils, Devkota throws a bitter satire on the political system where so- called great rulers who rule on the basis of power rather than the consent of the people. Hence, he denounces Alexander the Great and claims that all the kings are pauper for him. Similarly, he writes all those so-called rational courtiers who spent their whole life flattering the corrupt kings are dead corpse for him. He hates to those leaders who break the bones of people's right to fulfill their petty desires. The poet would like to stung and burn the system of government where a man does not treat a man as man, where a big fish eats to the small one. Here, the poet is certainly indicating the ill governance of totalitarian Rana regime where so many innocent people were made victim. Hence, the poem is successful to reveal the brutality and madness of the then time of poet, Devkota. The poem is remarkable as it drags the attention in the power of a creative writer's knowledge about which we are not so much conscious most of the time. 
Shreedhar Prasad Lohani

Shreedhar Prasad Lohani is one of the most famous, loved and respected name in English Department. He is a Nepali writer, critic, poet in English literature. Prof. Lohani has achieved his degrees from Tribhuvan University and the University of England and the U.S.A. He has taught English literature in English Department for several years. 
Generally, poet Lohani's poems are influenced by the romantic writers. The title of the present comes from Greek myth. In Greek myth, Gaia (also called Gaea) is considered to be the Goddess for earth. Hence, Gaia is the symbol or personification of mother earth or nature. Hence, this entire poem is on nature which is the main subject matter of romantic writers. Nature is mother, a feeder, care taker and the one who nourishes. Indeed, it is nature that sacrifices, endures all the difficulties and gives life to her generations. As a mother, nature or the earth is gentle. As a female she is not only and delicate but also ruthlessly cruel who can even kill others if she got angry. Such anger of the earth, human beings can see in the form of storm, landslide, flood, tsunami, wind, and volcanic eruption. So, nature is paradoxical because she is the source of creation and destruction. She creates life on the earth and destroys the life when she desires. In this sense, Lohani has presented earth not as dead space but like a human being who contains both good and bad qualities.
Though nature is goddess but she is all the surrounded by threats and challenges. To show how death lives in all the parts of earth, poet Lohani has used many death images. Death images are those mental pictures which give us the idea of death. Lohani begins with the image of wind which is surging (very hot) wind which has made the entire palm tree wither away. He writes that the rain which is generally supposed to be the source of life in fact devours the life itself. Most probably, the poet is referring to the floods which occur time and again and sweep away human settlements by the image of devouring rain. We must not forget the point that the poet has personified all the images which he has used in this poem. There is sea on the earth but the sea is opening its mouth like cave to eat whatever comes its beforehand. Similarly, the mountain which is supposed to be a source of entertainment, a source of relaxation and pleasure is compared with the beak of a bird which tortures and wounds its prey. If we think on the time, we come to know that it is the source of everything. It was the time which had produced the best civilizations and given birth to greatest scientific inventions but the poet here uses time merely as an agent which plucks ( destroys ) everything. Poet Lohani writes that entire world shrouded (covered) with mildew (bad smell).
The world is described as a house which has been covered by hunger from all the sides. Then, the second last line of the poem contradicts with all destructive qualities of earth with her another quality because the earth tolerates all these obstacles (challenges, threats and difficulties) because she knows that there is no creation without destruction. Hence, earth alone can show the best way to live life. That is, we should not be afraid of the difficulties of our life because they might have occurred to sharpen us so that we can do the best in our life. 
"Gaia" is a short poem written by Shreedhar Lohani. The poem uses Gaia, the Greek Goddess for earth as a personification or a symbol of earth and discusses what the human beings are doing over the nature and how the nature is enduring us no matter how bad she is exploited. In the poem, the different physical things turn into the devastating demons. The rain is devouring one, the sea has cavernous froth mouth, mountain peaks are snowless and the whole nature is being more exploited day by day and it's bringing lots of natural disasters. But whatever happens, the mother earth is enduring us. The author is optimistic about the life of human beings as he thinks that the mother earth will never stop feeding and providing life to us.
The Making of a Scientist
V. S. Ramachandran
V. S. Ramachandran begins with one of the most important element to be a scientist which is a sense of curiosity and wonder. He also states that one has to be ready to tolerate physical discomfort. For him, science is a love affair with the nature but one has to be on the lap of nature to establish romantic love. To be near the nature is certainly an adventurous task, one needs to face many difficulties while playing with nature. Ramachandran believes that stimuli and inspiration also plays vital role to change a person into scientist. He himself had been inspired by his teachers, lecturers in his school and college days. In his family, his uncle had motivated him to be a scientist; his mother had brought seashells so that he could research on them. He had got a chemistry lab opened under his staircase. His father had bought a microscope for him. Hence, one should be motivating family and environment to be a scientist who is further supported when he claims that Victorian era was the encouraging time which had produced the scientists like Darwin and Huxley. Ramachandran believed that one has to isolate from the mundane world and be studious about those dead scientists treating them as the living people. Similarly, Ramachandran believes that a scientist should have interest in different aspects of the earth. He himself had studied in the different fields like civilization; he loved anthropology, the survival strategy taken by a plant etc. Hence, he believed that the intense zeal of doing research and ability to find a sense of fun is another quality of a scientist. Undoubtedly, a scientist should feel a sense of fascination while performing any kind of experiment. 

In short, exploration and stimuli are interrelated to each other. The first and foremost requirement to be a scientist is the curiosity and enthusiasm. S/he must have desire to know more even if an end ends. One should be ready to get and face the difficulties. Curiosity is something that does not make someone comfort. Certain other qualities are required to be a scientist: They are as follows: innate trait, associations, family can stimulate an individual to be a scientist. 
‘The Making of a Scientist’ is an essay written by V.S. Ramachandran. It is an opinionated and descriptive essay based on his own experiences. The essay describes the writer’s opinion of how a scientist can be mustered. The essay focuses on how a scientist can be made by dealing with most significant requirements for it. Scientists are eccentric people than others. So, their interests, hobbies, environment should be something extra than those for normal ones. To be a scientist one should be obsessively, passionately and pathologically curious. As science is a subject of creations, freedom and independence, people should understand that in the absence of anyone results in the failure of innovations.
The writer explains about the nature and behavior of a scientist. He clarifies how a scientist is. He, from his own life experiences, also vividly tells us about the life of a scientist to some extent.
In my context, this essay has revitalized my belief in curiosity. I joined engineering course to play with my curiosity. But, the mugging system of Kathmandu University had discouraged me. But after this essay, I feel like still trust passion and instincts.

2. There is very less to interpret than to assimilate in The Making of a Scientist. Elucidate.
There is very less to interpret than to assimilate in The Making of a Scientist. Interpretation of the making of scientist is very less. First in the sense it is an argumentative essay and essay needn’t to be interpreting since it is already clarifying something. In this case the importance of family background, school and friends, teachers, colleagues and self interest in making of the science is being clarified by the writer. Hence the essay is argumentative and has interpreted above concept.
But there are many aspects to be assimilated. The text is written for learning how to turn a child into a great scientist. Interpretation has no meaning without assimilation but later is always must be more than former. We need to have clear concept of how to perform certain things and must learn to apply it but application is always higher than the theory. Here interpretation is understanding theory while the assimilation is applying the theory by learning. Hence every theory has numerous applications.
As in the essay, the writer makes argument that to be a scientist one need to be curious obsessively, passionately, almost pathologically from the childhood. Then the parents of that child must boost him/her by giving proper attention on proper way. When the child grows young he must be able to maintain the circle of friend who is curious obsessively, passionately, almost pathologically like him. He must have good relation with the teachers and must perform scientific experiments regularly to understand theories. When he starts his career he must make various researches in the field of interest. As done by the Ramachandran in his life.
Above paragraph is the interpretation about how to make the scientist. But it can be assimilated in many ways .Learning or assimilating is multidimensional factor since is can be learned in many different way. As in the essay we can assimilate: There are many scientists who were curious obsessively, passionately, almost pathologically from the childhood. For example scientist like Darwin, Newton etc. wouldn’t be scientist without the curiosity. In our society we can see those child who were given good assistant regarding their curiously flourishes much in youth in the same field.  The same fact is applicable for Ramachandarn.

Also writer explained Science flourishes best in an atmosphere of complete freedom and financial independence. He interprets this by giving the example of the Victorian time when the science flourishes much under the sound financial and complete freedom. Many discoveries were made at that time. This also shows that the interpretation of above statement can be assimilated in many ways as given below: This can be the answer why in America science is very developed than that in Nepal and any other developing countries. We Nepalese can learn fact and establish the peace and prosperity to provide sound environment for scientists, economist, and worker etc to work freely. This also explains why some students are bad at study than other simply because former might be living in poverty and violence while later in prosperity and peace. Hence, in the making of the scientist the understanding is much less than its application.
Third Thoughts
By E.V Lucas
The writer's friend's destiny was to buy things at the highest price and to sell in the cheapest, but one day, he was walking round the old shops of the city. He saw collection of water color drawings. There was a painting which had possibility of Turner. The dealer was not sure of it. So, he was reading to sell it in 10 shillings if the writer's friends did not buy, the dealer would take it to London to check-either the painting was original one or not.
The writer's friend bought the painting at 10 shilling. He was lucky because the painting was proved to  be original and he sold the painting at 50 pound. He earned 49 pound 10 shillings as a profit for the first time in his life. He thought to share the profit with the dealer because the dealer had behaved him very well. He thought to give him half of the profit. He wrote a note to the dealer then he went to bed because he did not have stamp and it was too late.
He woke up at 3:30 am and began to think his mistake. He thought why he had to share half profit. Then decided to give only ten pounds he tried to sleep but could not. Again he begins to think about the dealer by closing his eyes. If he sends the dealer 10 pounds, he would always expect similar later from other customers every day. It would make him sad waiting for the later which none would send him. Then he decided to send 5 pounds and that would be plenty for dealer. In the morning while he was dressing, he thought about the dealer again. Sharing a large part of profit was to disregard the goodness of business. He controlled his feeling and was ready to send just a pound to the dealer. Then he wrote a note and kept the cheque inside the envelope. He went the club for lunch there he started playing card and lost whatever he had. Then he concluded his though that buying and selling are straight forward matter between customer and dealer. Dealer asks as much as he can and customer tries to pay less. When the selling and buying activity end, there is no obligation of any duty from both sides.
In this essay, the essayist has talked about the human thinking process. This is a biographical essay in which the writer talks about the events of his friend's life. The writer's friend was a dealer who used to sell some of the water color paintings. He was not a good business man because he had failed to make profit in his business. He was a man of heart rather than mind. He used to buy the things at higher price and sell them in lower price. The situation reversed when he visited the old curiosity shops of a cathedral city. There he saw a water color drawing and the name of famous painter, Turner's name was written on it. Being curious on it, the writer's friend asked the price of the drawing with the shopkeeper. The shopkeeper replied that he was not sure whether the drawing was really of Turner which he was going to confirm on his visit to England. But if he wanted to buy it, he could take in ten shillings. The writer decided to buy it and took it to his shop. Later on, the drawing turned out to be the real work of Turner. The writer's friend became successful to sell it with the net profit of forty nine pound and ten. As a man of heart, he started to think that the shopkeeper was equal partner for the profit. If the shopkeeper had not sold it in that price, he would not have been able to make such profit. So, he decides to give him half of the profit. He writes a note to the shopkeeper. Since it was already night and he had no stamps, he keeps the letter and goes to the bed. He wakes up at about 3.30 a.m. Then he ponders over his entire life. He had faced so many losses in his life. At that time, there was none to support him, why should he give half profit to the shopkeeper? He feels that he should not be so much quixotic (idealist). He questions himself whether the shopkeeper would have been so kind if he had been in loss, of course not. So, he decides to give ten pounds. He closes his eyes and again begins to think about the dealer. Why should he give ten dollar? He thinks that if he gave ten dollars to the shopkeeper, he would be expecting same kinds of gifts in the days to come. Since other customers would not be like the writer's friend, so they would not send any gift. If it happens, the shopkeeper would live all the life with the false hope sinking down in the ocean of tears which he did not want. So, he decides that he would give just five pounds. 
The story presenting the constant changing nature of human mind seems to be full of humor and satire. Basically thinking with the nature of businessman's mind it proves that human mind can never be rigid and fixed. Especially in business their mind keeps on changing. At another level, it sheds light on human earning since the earning as that of writer's friend has no meaning at all in life. The most important thing in the story is that in business buying and selling are straight forward dealings. It has nothing to do with human consideration, sympathy and faith. Once goods are sold or bought they have nothing to do with them since then.
Critical Thinking:
The story offers a great deal of humor and satire. But in many respects, it doesn't seem appropriate and convincing. The first is: Does anyone want to share his profit? It is so much unbelievable. Similarly, the seller of any good knows its quality and the cost. Does any seller sell his good without knowing it?
As I went through the story, it reminded me of my own events that I experienced earlier. Once I had been to my village after a long time from the city. I had taken a beautiful watch there. Everyone liked it, one of my friends promised to pay Rs 500 for it, so I gave it to him. I got Rs 300 as profit, and so I got extremely happy but I did not share the profit and I was very happy.
A Tale
                                                                                              B.P. Koirala
Long-long ago human beings could complete with gods. God did not hesitate to request for help with human beings. They could get godhood by the hard penance. God used to be envious and tried to destroy the penance of the people who left all the worldly pleasures. Gods used to send beautiful nymphs for the destruction of penance.
Once, a man wanted to achieve supreme knowledge and godhood. So, he went to the forest for penance. He lived in the forest at wild roots and drank water from the river. He started hard penance. He sat in front of tongued fires in summer and plunged into ice-cold water in winter. The wild animals surrounded him as guards. Tigers and bears tiptoed not to disturb the sage. Termites build their nest one his leg. But the sage went on sitting motionlessly in a deep meditation. The sage's penance started to threaten the seat of Indra. So, Indra, king of gods sent an attractive and beautiful nymph in the forest to destroy the sage's penances.
She came down and started playing in the river which was near to the sage. She put off her clothes and stooped to feel her hands with water. Her breasts seemed so lovely like twin birds. At that very moment, the sage's eyes were suddenly opened as he was going to get godhood but he left his penances. He went towards the nymph because she was so attractive.
They married in the forest. The sage and his wife built a house in village. They gave birth of sons and started living a normal life. They helped their neighbors, nursed sick and fed hungry people. But the villagers did not like the Woman because she destroyed the sage's penance. This story may be trying to give massage that people can easily be defeated by the beauty.
Many years ago, human beings, competed with the gods who would request the human beings to help t hem in fight against the demon. The human beings wanted to become gods through penance but the clever gods broke their penance by sending beautiful nymphs. In the course of achieving supreme knowledge and god hood, a man went to the remote jungle because the thought that social obligations and the love of family and friends would block the path of godhood in the society. The man survived by eating fruits and drinking water by his hut. To win over his flesh, he sat before seven tongued fire in the summer and plunged into ice cold water in the winter. With much difficulty, he won his flesh and lost his soul to god. He received bliss by his penance and spent many years along with insects and animals. He felt the brightness of thousand suns inside him. The king of the gods, Indra, was afraid of him and sent the most beautiful nymph to destroy his penance. The nymph came to the river near his hut. She put off her clothes and entered the river water excitedly. At that time, the sage's eyes opened. He could not control his sexual desire and went towards her. He got attracted to her youth forgetting his main aim of achieving godhood. Then he married her and returned to his village. They started to live in simple domestic life and helped the villagers in whatever way they could. But the village people looked at them with hateful eyes. However the sage experienced the same bliss in his meditation with the nymph in the jungle and in his simple domestic life.
The writer may be trying to tell us that over ambition leads towards destruction. He is also trying to tell us that the state of bliss and relax of beauty are similar. Passion is very strong and undying. It blocks the path of progress. One, who cannot control his senses, can hardly reach his goal. Running away from our own desire to achieve unknowable is not justifiable, reasonable and praiseworthy. We need to adjust and make balance between our heart and mind, desire and need. Being idealistic is against our practical life, happiness and better future. Even great personalities get defeated against desire. Inner peace and outer peace are two parts of life. We should be able to balance them. This story tells us that passion or lust is great and never dies. Some people look indifferent to family life and even leave home to get peace but ultimately they return home
Critical Thinking
After reading this story, I knew a very good moral lesson. It teaches us to live simple life with high thinking and not to be over ambitious. Yet there are some points to the writer which are not easily agreeable. Do gods exist? Can anyone live by sitting before seven tongued fire in the summer and plunging into ice cold water in winter? Can't the harmful and poisonous insects and beast disturb a man's penance in open place in the jungle? If people feel bliss in simple domestic life, why do they leave home and become hermit or saint? So, I don't totally agree with the writer.
This story tells us that passion or lust is great and never dies. Some people look indifferent to family life and even leave home to get peace but ultimately they return home. There is a man in my locality who said that married life would block the way of progress. So, he promised to live a single life. He even made friendship with hermit. But after some years, he changed his idea and married a girl. He had two children but he again got married with another woman. He was charged in other many cases with his immoral relation with other women. Thus, man can never win the nature and its system.
The Great Answer
Fulton Oursler
People were gathering near the Spanish border. They were escaping from Nazi because they could be capture and killed by the Nazi because they. Among them there was a young mother with her little daughter. They were all refugees and were trying to get across into Spain and planned to get America by a ship. They were afraid because Nazi could come there to capture them. Spanish soldiers did not let the refugees cross the border.
A person came into the woman’s room. He was a leader. He informed her to come in a certain place and he was guiding them to cross the border in the right side. Woman and her daughter went to place where the leader had told her to come at night. All the refugees had already come there. Then they started the difficult journey. They promised to help the woman and carry her baby. They walked the secret way in the night. But on the way an old man could not continue the journey. So, he sank to the ground and said that he could not go ahead. He wanted to die and suggested the other refugees to save their life. But the leader came and told him that he couldn’t leave the journey. He must have helped to carry the woman’s daughter. The old man gathered his strength and continued the journey. On the journey three old men tried to leave the journey but leader didn’t allow them to do so. Those old men helped to carry the woman’s daughter. The next morning, they reached in the safe place by crossing the border and High Mountains. Thus they saved their life. It was the great answer for them of the struggle in the lives. The story may be trying to say that we can get success if we do something collectively.
King John and the Abbot of Canterbury
Anonymous,England(before 1695)
King John hears that the abbot of Canterbury was living a very luxurious life. He had hundred men in his house to serve. He had a lot of expensive ornaments. The king was envious with the abbot and he called him in the palace. Then the king accused abbot that he was plotting against the king. Abbot denied the king’s accusation. He replayed that he was enjoying with what he had. Then the king asked him three questions. If Abbot could not answer the questions, the king would kill him. The first question was what his worth was? Then he asked how much time he would take to go round of the earth? And the last question was what he was thinking. Abbot could not reply those questions because the questions were very difficult and deep to answer for the questions from the king.
Abbot went to oxford and Cambridge University to get answers from the scholars, but no intellectual person could answer those questions. He left his hope. Then he went to his villages, he meet a shepherd. Shepherd asked him about the king. Abbot told him everything what he was facing. Shepherd was ready to help the Abbot. They almost looked similar. So, he took Abbots cloths and to go to ready the kings questions. Shepherd reached in the place and king asked him the answers of his question. King could not recognize the shepherd because his face was similar to Abbot.
Shepherd replied that their god was sold in thirty pence and king was not as worthy as god. So his worth was 29 pence, one penny less than the god. His second answer was if the king woke up with sun and rode in the speed of sun, he would go round of the earth in twenty four hour. His third answer was that king was thinking him as the Abbot of Canterbury but he was not, he was a Shepherd. King became happy with the answer of the Shepherd and wanted to make him abbot. But Shepherd denied because he was not literate. The king planned to send four intellectuals a week to teach him. And king also sent message to Abbot that he forgave.
King John ruled over England mighty but he maintained little right. He had a humble Abbot. One day, the king heard that the Abbot of Canterbury lived in better way than the king did. The king was jealous with the Abbot and plotted to ruin his life and property. He called the Abbot and asked three nonsense questions. What he was worth. How long it would take for him to go round the world and what he thought. He warned the abbot to answer them rightly within two weeks. Otherwise his head would be cut off. The Abbot looked very depressed and consulted many scholars to find the solution but vain. On the twelfth day he returned home and his humble shepherd knew his problem and promised to help the Abbot in this matter. He looked like the Abbot outwardly. So, he disguised as the Abbot and went to answer the king's questions with the Abbot's servants on the horse. 
The king asked him if he was ready. As he replied positively the king began to repeat him to the questions. The shepherd replied that the king was worth twenty nine pence. He would ride round the world in twenty four hours and the king thought he was the Abbot of Canterbury. Everyone was surprised and being impressed by the replies the king offered the shepherd the post of the Abbot but the shepherd refused and re quested the king to pardon his Abbot. The king told him that the Abbot was pardoned. 
This poem may be trying to tell us that an absolute ruler is very dangerous for the people. A despotic ruler does not hesitate even to seize the life and property of his people. Rulers like King John are found in almost every country where weak and slow thinker people can't live peacefully. The poem also tells us that a learned man can't always find solution of any serious problems. But even an uneducated practical man can find right solution and he can give good knowledge to the educated ones through the characterization of Abbot and the shepherd. Likewise, the story beautifully shows that jealousy and fear are inseparable realities of human nature because the king, who had ruled England with fame and might, decides to kill an abbot so that his reputation as a rich ruler would not be questioned. The poem is humorous and satirical. 
From the moral point of view, the poem is much impressive. Through the poem, the poet proves that the bookish and formal education is not so much effective and useful to solve the practical problems. It has a great lesson that people and their knowledge shouldn't be judged on the ground of their profession and appearance. Thus the text has taught a great lesson that makes it clear that much is learnt through their daily life activities than from the universities. So the so called ignorant ones in terms of getting formal education aren't to be ignored and devaluated
Critical Thinking 
After reading this poem I got the impression that absolute ruler is really dangerous. But do such events as explained in the poem take place in real life? Can a man be valued in term of money? Can a man be compared to god? Can a man ride round the world in twenty for hours on horse? Doesn't a man recognize his own service man? Can an educated man like the shepherd find the solution of such different questions so easily? So, I don't totally agree with the poet. The poem seems to be much humorous and satirical. So far it imparts the idea of human knowledge and wisdom, it is appropriate but in whatever way the King Abbot and the Shepherd are presented, they don't seem believable and convincing. Since the king fails to recognize the shepherd changed as abbot. Similarly, the shepherd is presented in such a way that doesn't fit him to be more than that it mocks the formal education. It is too difficult to accept it.
This poem presents how cruel rulers torture their countrymen without reason to fulfill their desire. This poem also shows that powerful rulers are corrupted. They never fall behind to fulfill their even bad intention. I also came to know from the poem that practical knowledge is really strong. Even a scholar can't find solution of difficult problems. It is because they don't have practical knowledge. An uneducated person also can reach educated people many good lessons. The shepherd was quite ignorant but his knowledge was greater than of the doctors of oxford and Cambridge. "Loyalty is really great in need" is the main point of the poem. 
Reading this poem, I am too much impressed with the fact that only the formal education doesn't make people capable, rather they may learn many things from the practical experiences too. Having seen in my village, I come to know that many old people are capable of doing various things which other educated men don't know. So people can learn many things from their practical knowledge and experience.
The Stub Book
Pedro Antonio de Alarcon
Rota was a small town where farmers grew fruits and vegetables. The quality of its tomatoes and pumpkins were famous. The soil of the Rota was not soil but pure and clean sand cast up by the ocean, blown by the wind. Farmers were very laborious. There was not even a tiny stream flowing through the field. Farmers had made wells from which they drew the precious liquid for their vegetables. They watered tomatoes seeds or pumpkin pip by hand like a father who gives water to his child.
They loved their vegetables like their children. They even kissed, blessed and even gave names to the plants and vegetables. Uncle Buscabeatas was one of those farmers. He was sixty years old. He had spent 40 years tilling his field near the shore. He had grown some enormous pumpkins that they were turning to yellow. He knew them by color, shape and even by name. He planned to sell them next day. He was sad because he was going to be separated with the pumpkin the following day.
But he was astonished, angry and sad when he found his forty pumpkins stolen in the night. He thought his pumpkins could not be sold in Rota. They must have been taken to Cadiz to sell. He went in Cadiz and saw that his pumpkins were kept for sale. He told police to catch the vendor. The Vendor told them that he bought the pumpkins from Uncle fulano.
The Inspector of public market told uncle Buscabeatas to prove that those pumpkins were from his garden not of others. Uncle Buscabeatas threw a sack on the ground. He kneeled down. Everyone was curious to know that he was doing. Uncle Fulano also came there to see what was going on there. He was caught but he also asked to prove accusation. Uncle Bascabeatas looked out green stems and told them that they were stolen. He fitted the stems to pumpkins one by one. The spectators were surprised to see that the stems really fitted the pumpkins exactly which proved that uncle Buscabetas was right and uncle Fulano was thief. Uncle Fulano was compelled to return 15 duros to vendor and vendor gave it to Uncle Buscabeatas. Uncle Buscabeatas happily returned to his village but Uncle Fulano was arrested and sent to jail.

This is a story of a village situated at the bay Cadiz. This is the place which was liked by even by the duke of Osuna. He had made a beautiful castle because of his fascination to this place. The writer claims that he could describe this castle's brick by brick but he admits that his intention was not to describe any duke or castle but his purpose is to describe the hard labor of the people who are living in the same island. The essayist writes that the soil of this village is not so much fertile which consists of sand but the farmers here are so hard working that they have been referred as pumpkin and tomato growers. All the farmers accept this title with certain pride. Alarcon writes that the farmers dig well to supply the water which he calls life blood to the plants they grow. He makes terraces on the land, digs, and tills and sows the seed of pumpkin and tomatoes. Then, he provides water, fertilizer and love similar to the parents love to their children.

In the second section of the essay, the essayist talks about a farmer named Uncle Buscabeatas. In that year, he had grown up many pumpkins which were perfect in color, shape and were turn yellow to indicate that they had ripen. The farmer had given them name and could recognize them by their names. He had dreamt to sell those pumpkins and thought the person who would cook and eat them would be luckier. He had expected that the price of the fifteen duros. But contrary to his expectation, his all daughters (pumpkins) were stolen last night at nine or ten. The ground under his feet sank down but he determined that he would catch the thief and recover the daughters of toil. Uncle Busabeatas went to Cadiz vegetable market to find out his daughters and punish the thief. He took policeman. Pointing out a shop, he said the police man, '' These are my pumpkins, arrest him.'' The shopkeeper replied that he had bought those pumpkins and they belonged to him and suggested him to go to the court if he liked. People had started to gather around them. Stopping their debate, the policeman inquired the shopkeeper whom he had bought those pumpkins with. The shopkeeper replies that he had bought them from Uncle Fulano. Uncle Busabeatas becomes sure that Fulano must be thief because his garden had not produced anything this year. The policeman questions him how he could recognize that those pumpkins really belonged to him. He replies that he could as intimate with them as a father becomes with his daughter because he had nourished them with his own hands. At the same time, Uncle Fulano arrives there. As he sees Uncle Busabeatas and police, he tries to escape but the police man stopped him. Recovering his consciousness, Uncle Fulano challenges him to prove the blame. Then he brings the stems of those pumpkins and started to fill it with pumpkins. All the people were amazed when they saw that whichever pumpkin he picked claimed to fit on the stems, it fitted exactly. Astonished crowd began to shout that the pumpkins really belonged to Uncle Buscabeatas. Certainly Uncle Fulano had to pay fifteen duros before going to jail. Uncle Busabeatas returned pleased with himself but the images of pumpkins were still there in his mind. Indeed, they looked very beautiful in the market. He still doubted whether he did well by selling them in the market. Instead, he could have eaten himself and kept the seeds for the next cultivation. 
Moti Nissani
1. University education helps someone to get good job and other opportunity. The better educated you are the higher your income tends to be. It is said chief wealth of a nation is not its hand, Natural resources or population but skillful people. Educated people can construct a gold mine in the desert land.
2. An educated person is more likely to solve difficulties and problems in rational manner. Education teaches us many other practical applications.
3. Educated people are more likely to enjoy good health. They have better health consciousness than uneducated people. An educated person is more likely to lead the meaningful life and is less vulnerable to stress related diseases.
4. Educated person exercises his mind more than uneducated person. The way we take care of our body by exercising, we should also exercise our mind. It is said that sound mind is necessary to live a comfortable life.
5. Educated person is respected in every culture in the world. A person is handsome, kind and physically fit but if is uneducated, he will be considered as difficult or inferior. Education makes people self confident.
6. Education makes people curious. Basically uneducated people are less curious. Curiosity leads us to the critical and creative world. So educated people are more creative and critical than uneducated people.
7. We can expand our social horizon wider going to university. We meet people from different places and cultures. We become friend and share experiences.
8. Education increases our personal freedom. It makes us less dogmatic about own belief and more tolerant about the belief of others. It destroys the narrow minded walls of our mind.
9. Education tells us about our existence in the universe. It informs us that all human beings are members of the same species. It also warns that any species will extinct if we can't modify as per the environment.
10. There is direct relationship between democracy and education. Democracy requires educated citizens to flourish it. We must educate ourselves if we want to established permanent democracy in our country.
Marriage is a private affair
Chinua Achebe, Nigeria
Nnaemeka was in love with Nene. Nene was from the city and Nnemeka had come in lagos from the village. Nene suggested Nnaemeka to write a letter about their relation to his father who was living in the village. But Nnaemeka did not want to inform about their relation to his father from the letter. He wanted to tell everything after meeting his father in the village in his vacation. So, he told his beloved that his father would not be happy knowing their plan of marriage without taking his permission. Nene was surprised with Nneameka's saying. But he convinced her that people who were living in his culture would carry concept that the parents had to arrange the marriage for their children.
His father had sent him a letter. Father had written that he had selected the girl for his son. She was Ugoye who was Nnaemeks's friend in their childhood. But he did not tell anything about it to Nene. In his vacation Nnaemeka went his village and he asked forgiveness to his father that he could not marry the girl whom his father had chosen. He told his father that he was in love with a girl in city. She was a teacher. She was Nene Atang who was from different tribe. When his father listened all those things about his son, He was very much angry and upset. But Nnaemeka was not ready to change his mind. Then he went back to Lagos. The villagers suggested Okeke to treat his son by a native doctor. But Okeke did not even want to listen about his son. He said that his son was dead for him.
Nnaemeka married with Nene and he wrote a letter and sent a photo to his father but father return the letter as well as photo by mutilating the picture of Nene. When Nene saw her photo, she became very sad but Nnaemenks convinced her that his father was not a bad person and he would accept their relation one day. Villagers knew that Nnaemenka was living a happy marriage life in lagos. But nobody told Okeke about it because they knew that Okeke did not want to listen anything about his son.
After eight years of their marriage life, they had two sons. But they could not inform to Okeke in the village. And at last Nene wrote a letter to her father-in-law. She wrote that when their sons knew that they had grandfather in the villages, they were eager to see him. So, she requested him to allow Nnaemeka to visit him with two sons for a shirt time in the vacation when Okeke read the letter he knew that he had two grandsons in the city and wanted to meet him. He felt himself to be very selfish. He thought that how he could shut the door for them. That night he hardly slept. He was afraid that he might die with night correcting his mistake.
Extensive Reading
Even though the change was tough for Okeke, he still manages to move on and except the change. Okeke is shown here that he is totally against his sons doing and thinks that he is brainwashed. He shows this when he says, "I can't have you in my house." Okeke replies "I shall never see her. These changes are usually not bad, but because people are set in their traditional ways it can be a tough change. "As Okeke thinks about the grandchildren the author then pretty much leaves you with the question "How could he shut his door against them?" Thus Okeke finally does change when realizes that he has neglected his grandsons and the relationship a grandfather and grandchildren should have. Okeke is a stubborn father because even when Naemeka say, "You will change your mind, Father, when you know Nene. As you can see, Okeke is a man that goes through a change in his life.  Eventually, Okeke even become resentful towards his son. It can be of no interest to me where or how you spend your leave- or your life, for that matter. Okeke shows this when he says, "I owe it to you, my son, as a duty to show you what is right and what is wrong."

Nnaemeka's decison to mary Nene was made with a specific intent. While Namesake and Okeke are in agreement that his wife should have a Christian background, Okeke takes great offense to Nene's teaching. Tradition is an aspect of Ibo life which transcends all other obligations. Likewise, Okeke embraces tradition to such a degree that he neglects his family. Namesake realizes this before he even confronts his father about the marriage, which explains his hesitancy and apprehension to inform Okeke in the beginning of the story. Because Okeke is so dogmatic, this decision was not made without regard to its consequences or Okeke's reaction. However, Nnameka's unique character has an effect which is calculated and tactical. Likewise, Nnaemeka's less literal translation of the Bible allows him to marry Nene and abide by a set of standards which set his future at odds with Okeke. Namesake tries to appeal to his father through reason and persistence, neglecting any personal sacrifice to appease Okeke. Okeke values Ibo tradition to such a degree that he negates his familial ties in order to retain a pure, untainted sense of integrity. The crux of their disagreement revolves around the emphasis placed on tradition. Okeke's refusal to yield or concede anything to Namesake has an effect which permeates all his future actions. When Namesake tries to justify his reasons for not marrying Ogee, he says, "Marriage to day is different"
The story basically presents the burning social problems found in the rural areas where the majority of the people are superstitious and uneducated. Okeke living in a village doesn’t like his son marrying with a city girl of different tribe. It presents thus the conflict between father and son, one representing the traditional values and the next modern and changing values. The next important point in the story is that it has shown the fact that marriage must be a private affair in everyone’s life. One must be free to choose his/her life partner according to his/her wish. It helps them to lead a very happy life and also it helps to avoid the social discrimination to a great extent.
Critical Thinking:
Though the story presenting a burning social problem deserves good response and appreciation from the reader’s side, yet, in deeper level, there are many points in which they may not be satisfied. Now people aren’t as they were in the past because of changing social values and education. People aren’t stuck to the old values, tradition and system. So far marriage is concerned; people are enjoying it as a private affair rather than the means to protect the culture. Inter-cast marriage has become the fashion among the youngsters of the time. So, the present story captures the interest of the people.
This story took me back to an event occurred in the life of my close friend Gagan. Gagan is only one son of his parents. He belongs to a Brahmin family. He is quite modern but his parents are conservative. Once, his parents chose a girl of their caste for Gagan. But Gagan had fallen in love with a girl of lower caste. So, he refused to marry the girl his parents had chosen. He requested them to allow him to marry the girl he loved. His parents became very angry and abandoned him when he married the girl. But Gagan had a son after one year. His wife was tactful and one day she wrote Gagan's parents if they did not like to see the face of their grandson. Their heart melted and one day Gagan's father wrote him to come home with his family. 
Arranging  a marriage in  India
Serena Nanda
In India, almost all marriages are arranged by the parents. Marriage is as much a concern of the families as it is of the individuals. In many cases, the bride and groom do not meet each other before marriage. If they meet, they meet for a short conversation. Parents do not compel their children to marry a person whom they selected. If their children don't like, they search another one.
The writer is an American. So, she found the system difficult to believe. She thought the cultural of arranged marriage oppressive. She was very much curious to know how young Indian would take it. She met Sita who was a collage graduate student. She had been waiting for over a year while her parents were arranging a match for her. The writer asked her how she could marry whom she had never seen and known well. Sita replied that her parents never arrange a marriage for her without knowing about the boy and his family. Her parents would not marry her into a bad family. She told her that Americans don't know about their partner so well before marriage. So there would not be mystery and romance after marriage. So, she continued that American girls were spending all their time worrying about if they would meet a man and get married but Indian girls would have a chance to enjoy their life and let their parents do that work of worrying for them.
Six years later, she returned to India again. She met many Indian couples whose marriage had been arranged were living a happy marriage life.
In India, she also participated in arranging marriage for her friend's son. Her friends were in the process of arranging for the marriage of her eldest son. He was well-educated, nice looking and carrying out his father business. The writer was sure that he would easily get a partner for him. Her friend was so selective that did not arrange the marriage for her son if she found a small weakness in the girl or in her family she did not like to arrange the marriage from the big family where there were five daughters. Next she rejected a family simply because the girl was fat and wearing glasses. And even a girl was rejected because she was traveling alone in the city. They thought she was independent. Independent girl was not accepted by her family.
Two years later she again returned to India. Her friend was still searching a girl for her son. At that time, the boy was close to 30, and her friend was little worried. The writer met family with marriageable daughter. The girl studied fashion design in the college. She was pretty. Her parents had not allowed her to go out of the city to find out her career. So, she was running a small dressmaking boutique. After a year, the boy was going to marry with a girl.
Extensive Reading
The essayist Serena Nanda has beautifully described the assumptions of western and eastern culture regarding marriage in this essay. The essayist had been temporarily in India. She was grown up in US. So, she strongly believed in western culture. She was quite surprised when she came to know that marriage in India is a matter of family rather than Individual. She writes that there are two ways of marriage system in India. One is the marriage which is arranged by the parents and the another is one in which parents do not have any role but the boys and girls themselves select their life partner which is called 'love match' She was shocked when she came to know that parents and other relatives take the responsibility of arranging marriage in India. Then she ponders on this issue. At first she does not like this idea because she believed that Western marriage system is better because it has following merits: It provides the freedom to select their spouse, has sufficient romance, boy and the girl can know each other. They can make a plan of their life before marriage. 
She does not prefer Indian marriage system: She simply believes that it is ridiculous because Indian marriage system ceases the personal freedom and is devoid of romance in her definitions. It is through the communication with an Indian girl, Sita, she slowly realizes that how content the Indian boys and girls were to give the responsibilities of selecting their life parents form their matured parents and enjoy the freedom. It is her friend who makes the essayist knows some beliefs associated with Indian marriage system because her friend was also in search of a bride to her son. According to it, a girl who is more educated, goes out of the home without any guardian is not preferred. Similarly, she should be religious, soft spoken and modest. She should neither gossip and nor should she quarrel. These are the most two important qualities desired from a good girl. Similarly, the essayist also knows that a good Indian boy should not be short and dark. In addition to these negative aspects of a boy, the writer also knows that Indian people would not like to give her daughter's hand to the person who is an army or police. All these details have both positive and negative impact upon the writer. It causes humor in the writer and she also begins to appreciate such intense awareness given by the Indians on the serious issue like marriage at the same time. The writer goes to US and finds that her many friends who had of course married in the west style had divorced. Quite contrarily, she finds that all the couples in India were living very happily. This perception of two realities on the two marriage system of the east and west germinates a kind of faith on the Indian marriage system. Then, the writer herself gets engaged in the search of her friend's son's bride. Finally, she is successful. Hence, the essay is the reflection of a westerner's assimilation of the eastern culture after the understanding its deep riches. 
Then and Now: Finding My Voice
Elaine H. Kim
Critical Reading:
Basically, this essay is about a struggle of an Asian- American woman to find her identity in a country where she is treated as a foreigner, the ‘other’. It shows how she suffers as an Asian- American woman in a White male dominated society of America and how she discovers herself with a strong voice.
An incident of fortune telling takes the writer back to her childhood days, the time when she had to struggle in the USA as a foreigner. Kim reassesses her past particularly her teenage year and remembers how being brought up in a hybrid culture. She had to struggle to establish her identity, voice and her space in USA. She had to face two sides of reality: people and culture inside the house and outside the house and she could not understand this disjuncture and felt trapped in between. She found herself suppressed and discriminated against by the White people (European and American), violence and discrimination against the Afro- Americans, racial prejudices and gender discrimination. 

She had to face two problems- as a foreigner and as a woman in the male dominated White society. She was taken as 'perpetual outsider' and the 'other'. There were strong prejudices against the foreigners. Her determination to be cheerleader was her attempt to be popular and to be recognized. However, her success in becoming the cheerleader did not bring her any new identity. Rather she developed the feeling of isolation and alienation. He suffering brings her new understanding. The difficulties and confusion during her teenage inspired her to learn about history and when she grew up. She learned that she was not alone in her suffering. She learned about racism, American women’s and African American’s struggle for equality and social justice. 

As a result of her struggle for identity, she discovers herself. Now she views her past from a different perspective. Her experience has stimulated her to work to educate people against the racism and sexism. This work has helped her better understand herself. Now she finds herself strong with a new voice. 

Kim in "Then and Now: Finding my Voice" talks about the fortune-telling. She loves fortune telling way of prediction. She brings her own experience as she has once been to Buddhist temples and long waited for her turn. A popular fortuneteller took a glance on her four animals: horse, dragon, tiger and dog, and asked who that man was.
The particular year these were the sponsor of a fund-raising part by the Korean community center in Oakland. There Kim showed her saju and was informed that whatever would be was in between 12 to 17 years of age.
Kim talks about the social injustice. The predication about her seemed to have been wrong because the period between junior high and high school was the most unhappy and most difficult period in her life. May be the fortune teller considered the writer to have been brought up in the US and luckily not to have seen the devastating Korean war of 1950s though he was wrong in predication, he insisted that her period was a watershed one according to his numerology figures.
The writer remembers that her house in suburban Maryland was being sheltered by the Korean refugees. Her parents were scraping by themselves, and she never seemed able to catch the attention of mother. When bad lucks come, they come in chain. Another disaster she faced between the ages of 12 to 17 was the disjuncture between people and culture inside and outside her house. People inside her house spoke Korean, ate Korean food and talked about Korea. But outside her house none knew much about or interested in Korea. Those who had heard of Korea thought it was a state in Japan or China.
1950s was also a period of violence and discrimination for many people of color. African Americans were forced to live in segregated neighborhoods. Moreover, they were victimized by the police. Though Asians were allowed to live in white neighborhoods, the writer’s brother was beaten by white boys daily. The writer was also harassed in her school. Besides she was not invited into white people’s homes. She was treated as a perpetual outsider or foreigner.
In such difficult situation, the writer was determined to become a cheerleader. Her determination to be a cheerleader was her attempt to be popular and to be recognized However, her success in becoming the cheerleader did not bring her any new identity. Rather she developed the feeling of isolation and alienation.
Her suffering brought her new understanding. The difficulties and confusion during her teens inspired her to learn about history when she grew up she learned that she was not alone in her suffering. She learned about racism, American women’s and African. American’s struggle for equality and social justice.
As a result of her struggle for identity, she discovers herself. Their experiences stimulated her to work to educate people against racism and sexism. That work helped her better understand she found herself strong with a new voice.
This essay is about a struggle of an Asian- American woman to find her identity in a country where she is treated as an Asian- American woman in a white male dominated society of American and how she discovers herself with a strong voice.
TV Can Be a Good Parent
Ariel Gore
As a single working mother Gore defends television and thinks that it can be a good parent. She is surrounded by the host of problems and she cannot be a stay-at – home mother. She shows how TV can be useful for the working mothers like herself who can spend sufficient time for children. When she needed time for herself she found that the TV programs like Big Bird and Barney the Dinosaur a better parent than herself. TV has been a helpful co-parent. 

She cites American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) report that states she is doing her daughter an injustice every time she lets her watch TV, babies and toddlers need direct interaction with parents for healthy brain growth and for cognitive skills, exposing young children to television should be discouraged. Gore analyses the report and defends herself: She admits that the babies and toddlers have a critical need for direct interaction with actual people. However, she disagrees with the view that children should not be exposed to television. She thinks that sticking them in front of TV all day and all night should be discouraged but watching kids don’t interact with their parents is a false assumption. 
She also criticizes AAP’s view that young children should not watch TV at all and its recommendation that the pediatrician view that TV is not the best learning tool and it can be interactive. She is not ready to accept the assumption that TV watching kids don’t interact with her parents.
Surely You're Joking, Mr. Feynman!
Richard P. Feynman with Ralph Leighton
Extensive and critical reading
Richard Feynman was a Nobel-prize-winning physicist best known for his alternative formulation of quantum mechanics and his work on quantum electrodynamics. Like many physicists of his generation, he also worked on the Manhattan Project to construct a nuclear bomb during World War II. Late in life, he became renowned for his participation in the panel investigating the Challenger disaster. He was also a professor at Caltech, where he won the highly prestigious Oersted Medal for teaching.
Surely You're Joking, Mr. Feynman is an autobiography by anecdote. It leaves out much of the structure and framework of an autobiography and skims over what a conventional biography would treat as the meat of Feynman's career (much of the physics, much of his personal life, almost the entirety of his teaching career). Instead, reading it is like listening to Feynman tells funny stories and tall tales about his life.
Feynman had a curious mind.  His interests ranged far and wide.  Physics buttered his bread, but the world was his oyster.  In each endeavor he undertook, he set sail on his quest for understanding in fundamentally the same way–by first acknowledging his ignorance, and then clearing his mind of preconceptions.  Only then could he rationally, objectively and amorally investigate the matter, allowing the evidence to carry him wherever it would. This is the best one can do in the quest for knowledge and understanding—objective, amoral investigation of cause and effect relationships, with a gimlet eye casting aspersions on all untested conclusions and inferences.  Applying logic—the idea of “if this, then that”—is the only hope of ever understanding anything, and Feynman’s mind was exquisitely logical.  Though he tells next to nothing about the technical intricacies of his work in physics, it can be assumed that he attacked problems in quantum dynamics (for which he eventually won a Nobel Prize) in much the same manner.

It seemed Feynman rarely engaged in rationalization–the daily mental gymnastics in which most folks engage to make the world as it appears to be somewhat congruent with the world as we wish it to be.  Feynman took things at face value, which is the running joke of Surely you’re joking.  Feynman seemed to live something like Jim Carrey’s character in the movie Liar, Liar, almost unable to lie, even when it would benefit him.  Men of less extraordinary talents might, like Carrey’s character, find everyday life impossible to negotiate without the occasional rationalization.  Feynman’s brilliance allowed him to get by with little need of it.  He was honest to a fault.  He blatantly told his hosts exactly what he felt of their education- by-rote-memorization system after having taught physics to undergraduates in Brazil.  Feynman had the heart of a lion with the wit of a hyena when navigating the shoals between objective reality and perceptual delusions.  
Feynman concludes his undergraduate work at MIT. He wishes to remain there for graduate school, but is advised to do his graduate work at a different institution. He decides to attend Princeton.
He is a little nervous about Princeton, since the school has a reputation for formality and elegance, and vows to make an attempt to improve his social graces. When he arrives at Princeton, he notices that everybody speaks very formally, lives in nice rooms, and wears academic robes when taking daily meals in the elegant dining hall. On the day of his arrival he is invited to a "tea". Feynman has never been to a tea before, and is not sure how he is supposed to behave, but it is clear to him that he has committed social error.

"Surely You're Joking, Mr. Feynman!" is a chapter with almost no plot, in which the story is told in first person. The voice the reader hears is that of a single, actual person, relating his life experiences and observations. However, the chapter credits other contributing authors (most notably Ralph Leighton). Therefore, although the ideas, and experiences (as well as most of the words) are almost certainly Feynman's, the process of taking his words and ideas, organizing them into a coherent (if unconventional) whole, and producing them in the form of a chapter. However many contributors may be working on this narrative, the primary purpose is to show the multiple talents within a person.

Plot Summary
"Surely You're Joking, Mr. Feynman!" is an autobiography of the late physicist, Richard P. Feynman—a very unconventional one. Rather than relating the story of his life in a traditional manner, Feynman gives us a collection of unconnected anecdotes loosely organized into this chapter.  After reading the collection of anecdotes, which focus more on mundane details of his life than on major life events and great career accomplishments, what we end up with is a pretty good idea of the day-to-day life and personality quirks of this particular man, and insight into what makes him tick.
I graduated college the year this book came out.  At the time, I knew next to nothing about physics.  (Feynman was a Nobel laureate physicist that worked on the Manhattan Project, et al).  I knew less about how to think.  All I really knew was how to memorize and regurgitate, because that’s how you got through college.  Had I read this book when it first came out, maybe I’d have had a shorter journey from ignorance to understanding.  But maybe not.  Given that I thought I knew and understood a lot, I’d have probably dismissed the book and its author as somewhat deranged, and anyways, not useful or relevant to my life goals.  I’d have not realized, as I do now, that Feynman reveals, through this string of anecdotes and events in his life (very few of which concern physics), a great deal about how to gain an understanding of the world. Understanding begins with acknowledging ignorance.  That’s surely where I would have failed to grasp the lessons of Feynman’s life.  I’m glad I didn’t read the book back when it came out.  Twenty five years of life’s humbling have left me feeling very Socratic regarding knowledge and understanding.  Socrates was considered the wisest man in the world because he was the only man who didn’t think himself wise.  That’s what the intervening years have done for me.  All I know for sure these days is that I know very little for sure.   I don’t feel wise.  I mostly just feel humble. 

Life Is Sweet at Kumansenu:
Abioseh Nicol
Literal Comprehension
There was a beautiful village in South Africa named Kumansenu. It was situated in a beautiful landscape. The beauty of the village had been further increased by the lines of thatched roofed houses of the village. In one of those houses, there lived a widow. Her name was Bola with her seven years old granddaughter named Asi. Bola had a story in her youth. She had given birth of five sons but none of them had survived. Hence they had consulted with the magician of the village who had suggested them to break the bones of dead child's legs so that his evil spirit would not be able to take another birth and trouble them. But, Bola did not allow to the people to do so. Instead, she put a black spot on the buttock of the baby so that she could recognize the baby when the same spirit would come next time when she would beget the next baby. Time passed, she gave birth to another son, Musa. She looked at the buttock. Indeed, there was a black spot in the exact place where she had spotted in her previous baby. Anyway, the child did not die young. He grew up, got married, and gave birth to a daughter. At present, Musa was working as a clerk in the city. He was staying there with his wife. One day, all of sudden the son appears in the room in one of the evenings. The old widow asked why he had been there without information. She wanted to call all the villagers to welcome him. But the son stopped her saying that he wanted to share his happiness with his family members only. His daughter went to meet him and saw that her father had covered his neck. Curious girl asked him why he had covered his neck. He replied that there was a wound in his neck and hoped that she would not touch it. Next day, both of them went to visit, father takes her far and wide. The girl was surprised because she could not see her father's shadow, he was very transparent and his watch had stopped at twelve o'clock. The father replied that it was twelve o'clock and there would not be any shadow at the time. He also teaches there to open a chain. They return their home. The mother suggests him to go to the graveyard and meet his father's tomb. Then they reach to the graveyard, the mother takes some of the almonds and throws up the graveyard. Three of them turn upwards and three of them turn downwards which means the living and dying soul was communicating each other. The mother tells her son that his father was happy with him. The son replies that he had felt very close with his father on that day. Both of them returned their home. The mother prepares food but the son would not take it. It was raining outside. The son was standing in the rain. The mother calls him inside but the son replies that he had come there just to thank her because she did not cut his legs in the previous life. Then he disappears. Next day Musa's wife who had been staying in the city comes. She delivers a message that her husband had died exactly at 12 o'clock when the glass of the window broke down and his head had been severed as he had tried to peep out through it. The daughter could not believe it and begins to cry and the mother lulls her by offering the chain which was her father's last gift. Bola was happy because she had selected not to break the legs of the dead child. And, it was because of her great decision there were her daughter in law and granddaughter as the support of her old age. 
Life is Sweet at Kumansenu (Extensive Reading)
First of all, the theme of “Life is Sweet at Kumansenu” is portrayed through the ways that the author describes the setting of the story. The setting describes the surroundings around the character and the area in which the character lives or spends a lot of time. For instance, the setting is described as, “The sea and the wet sand to one side of it; green tropical forest on the other; above it, the slow, tumbling clouds. The clean, round, blinding disk of sun and the blue sky covered and surrounded the small African village, Kumansenu.” These statements fit with the theme, “Don’t take life for granted,” because they speak of the beautiful area that is all around and how sometimes you need to just stop and take a look at the beauty of life. Therefore, the author used a unique setting to describe the theme of the story.
Secondly, the theme can be seen in the uses of characterization throughout the story. In “Life is Sweet at Kumansenu,” the author shows characterization through speech and appearance. This statement is made: “She clutched Asi to her. ‘I am glad I gave him the opportunity to come back, for life is sweet.’” This form of characterization used was speech in which Bola clutched her granddaughter to herself she spoke of how happy she was that she let Meji come see her because he would be able to enjoy life. This is a form of characterization in that it shows how much Bola cared about her son and wanted him to enjoy the essence of life. Also another form of characterization used is, “He turned around from the window and looked at her with a twisted half-smile of love and sadness.” This form was that of appearance and it demonstrates the theme in that, without the audience knowing it, Meji is dead and he is looking at his living mother. He sees in her a love for life and wishes that he himself could be experiencing that sort of love. So it can be concluded that Abioseh, the author of this story, used characterization through speech and through appearance to interpret the theme that life should not be taken for granted. 
Thirdly the theme of “Life is Sweet at Kumansenu” is demonstrated through symbolism. In this story symbolism provides foreshadowing and represents the emotions of the characters. An example of symbolism is when “She threw the four kola nuts up into the air and they fell on the grave.” In this case, the kola nuts represent death, which adds to the theme because it’s showing that death can come suddenly. Another instance of symbolism is when Asi’s mother tells her, “Your papa had this made last week for your Christmas present. You may as well have it now” She is referring to a gold locket, which symbolizes Meji’s love for his daughter. This contributes to the theme because it shows how love is important and you should appreciate those in your life. Therefore, symbolism is one element which serves to demonstrate the theme of this story.
The fourth aspect that illuminates the theme is irony. Irony is defined as the contrast between our expectations and reality. Irony is used a lot in “Life is Sweet at Kumansenu,” because of the fact that the main plot has a highly ironic twist (that a man who appears normal is really dead). One instance of this is when Bola and Meji are standing by the grave of Meji’s father and Meji “...said that he felt nearer his father at that moment than he had ever done before in his life.” This is both verbal and situational irony, since at the time, Meji was actually dead, and so he really would be closer than ever to his dead father. This proves the theme because it shows how unexpected things, death not least of all, can happen, and that you shouldn’t take things for granted. Because of this, irony is clearly one way in which the author presents the theme.

In conclusion; the message of “Don’t take life for granted” is clearly presented as the theme of “Life is Sweet at Kumansenu.” It is shown through Abioseh’s use of setting to describe the beauty in nature that we shouldn’t forget to notice. It is also made apparent because of the characterization that shows how sweet life is. Another element that shows the theme is the symbols of the story and how
they represent death and the love a father has for his daughter. Irony also contributes by showing how things are not always what we expect them to be, and that death may be closer than we realize. Last but not least, the theme is demonstrated by the author’s imagery, which paints a vivid picture of how fleeting life is. This all goes to show that it’s important to not let life pass you by and to enjoy what you have while it lasts.
Mr. Know All
W. Somerset Maugham
Literal Comprehension                                     
One day, the writer set out to make a 14 days long voyage from San Francisco to Yokohama. The writer felt discomfort to share the cabin with Max Kelada because he thought that Max Kelada was also an Englishman but he was a boring man. He had carried many strange things and talked about different subjects. He said that he had a very good knowledge about everything. So, he could be called Mr. Know all.
Mr. Kelada was very frank and friendly. He offered the writer a drink and booked a seat for dinner for the writer. But he followed the writer all the time and ruined his fun.

Once Mr. Kelada, the writer, Mr. Ramsay and Mrs. Ramsay chanced to sit for lunch on a table. Mr. Ramsay was in the American consular service posted at Kobe, Japan. He was going to Japan with his beautiful wife. Mr. Ramsay has stayed one year alone in Japan living Mrs. Ramsay in New York. The couple did not like the way Max Kelada behaved. While talking Mr. Kelada said that he knew everything about jewelry and he was going to Japan for the business of pearl. At that time, he saw a pearl chain worn by Mrs. Ramsay, he said that the chain was really original. At that time Mr. Ramsay asked him to guess its price max Kelada confidently said that it would cost 15000 dollars in general trade but on the 5th avenue,  it would even cost 30000 dollars. But Mr. Ramsay laughed grimly and said that it was a duplicate pearl and they had bought it in a departmental store for 18 dollars. But Max Kelada did not believe and they bet for 100 dollars. At that time Mrs. Ramsay flushed Max Kelada took out his magnifying glass and examined the pearl. Although he won the bet he also studied the psychology of Mrs. Ramsay and knew that something wrong was going to happen in their relation. So, he announced that he was mistaken. He gave 100 dollars to Mr. Ramsay.
Next morning, when the writer was shaving, someone slipped envelope into their cabin. He gave it to Mr. Kelada because it had been addressed to him. There was 100 dollars in the envelope. Then the writer also did not hate him totally. 
This story may be trying to tell us about the writer's attitude towards the black. Although Mr. Kelada was helpful and friendly, he was hated by the writer and the couple Ramsays. The writer also teaches us not to be so chatty like Max Kelada without understanding the view of the listeners and save people from trouble without caring personal benefit or selfishness. He also teaches us to apply skepticism power even on very close, relatives who are living far from us. 

Critical Thinking (But don't write points in exam, write in paragraphs)

After reading this story, we can find some disagreeable points. 
i)                    Is a passenger allowed to carry all kinds of wines with him? 
ii)                  Does anyone dislike the other because of color discrimination? 
iii)                Does anyone give up his money even after winning the bet? 
iv)                Can we find such Mr. Know all in this world? 
v)                  Don't we find a frank and friendly person good during a long journey? 
vi)                Should a husband really suspect on the behavior of his wife?
So, I don't totally agree with the writer. 
This story taught me many useful things. Before I read the story, I used to make friendship with as many people as I met. I enjoyed talking with them about what I know. But I did not study their view whether they liked my talk to no. they may have hated me in the lack of my sincerity. I also offered people things while making a long journey but I got no benefit. No I will try to save myself from such events.

How Sane Are We
Anuradha Chaudhary
Literal Comprehension:
The Essay "How Sane Are We?" by Anuradha Chaudhary is based on environmental problem. Basically, she presents her ideas that human beings have been too much irresponsible and indifferent to the conservation of the environment and she predicts that it will make their life quite difficult. She believes that due to human indifference, rapid urbanization and industrialization, the environment is getting heavily polluted. Mainly she believes that the gases produced from the industry, mishandling the chemicals and the excessive use of CFCs have greatly contributed for the destruction of ozone layer which causes skin cancer, green house effect and other various epidemics. Similarly, people have been greatly suffering from other various natural calamities such as flood but still people don't seem concerned to the direction of its preservation. Finally, she believes that if it continues, it will be impossible to continue life on it.
Anuradha Chaudhary is a professor of environmental biology. In this essay as a researcher of environment she talks about the degrading condition of the nature and surrounding. She begins her essay with an idea of Kipling who writes if the condition of the nature degrades in the same rapidity, we have to slain the heads of our generation in near future. Chaudhary sees that there is possibility of such catastrophe in human life because she has read about the laws like Parkinson’s in which the leaders who are elected for making the laws of the state for the welfare of people are themselves engaged in power politics. To make irrationality and irresponsibility of human beings naked, Chaudhary believes that the students shouldn’t believe in facts because they are published by the leaders to deceive the common people. At the same time, she also presents the facts after facts which make her essay more appealing and convincing. Chaudhary stresses on reshaping, rethinking on the ways of politics. Here Chaudhary satirizes those leaders whose goal is to get the power rather than solving the real natural threats to human beings.
Chaudhary writes that chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) causes 20% green house effect which is capable of completely destroying life on earth. Here, Anuradha highlights the fact that the ozone depletion will take place completely if the use of cfcs continues. Chaudhary also mentions ozone layer protects our life by observing 99% ultra-violet rays. If it reaches to the earth, she believes more than 240 million people get skin cancer, eight million might get eye cataracts which would result millions death. Chaudhary appreciates to the decision o f some developed countries like United States, Canada, Sweden and Norway have banned in the use of cfcs in aerosol sprays.
Chaudhary brings an example of science fiction to persuade us about the terrible effects of careless scientific inventions. Citing an illustration of the science fiction War with the Newts, Chaudhary shows us vividly that one day our own invention will be used to dig our own grave yard. Chaudhary sarcastically presents the evil effects of science and technology which has invented the different missiles, guns, arms and ammunitions which have transfigured our way of fighting in comparison with the way our forefather used to fight. That is to say, we no longer fight with the sticks and stones but we have highly modern weapons. But she wants to make us ponder on the fact: Is there any space for our satisfaction? Is there any place for the secured life of our upcoming generation? Of course not, it is because we have not comprehended and acted for the solution for the adverse effect they have given on the nature. We are neglecting the nature we are living in and we are not able even to save the nature as our ancestors. We have not been worried about the forth coming danger due to our activities although we have been warned about it. We are digging our own graves and our future generations. If we don't think about changing the present social, economical and political system of the world, we will have to face a great disaster in the future and we will ourselves be responsible for it. Politics is quite related to ecological system. So, people should choose a right leader freely who can help to save the environment or atmosphere wisely.
Man has invented different kinds of harmful things for the nature CFCs is also a man made chemical which cause 20% of the green house effect. They also greatly effect on ozone layer by reducing its layer which blocks the 99% of the total ultraviolet radiation. If the sun's ultraviolet radiations reach the earth, it will badly disturb the natural eco system the agricultural product decrease people lose their sight. They can get skin cancer and it also suppress in the human immune system. CFCs was invented in 1930 and used in making refrigerators trays, spraying cans and computer chips. The government was warned by the scientists in 1974 that these chemicals destroy ozone but the government did not take it seriously. But the use of CFCs was banned in 1978 and in 1985 the CFCs ozone links was established. All the nations of the world agreed to stop this production by 2006 A.D by global phase out. It shows the rationality of human beings, yet some people want to stop their production immediately. Some skeptic people compare the production of CFCs to the war with the news people tried to save them from sharks and their number increase. So, they affected the lives of people very badly. It was due to their shout sightedness.  However, all the conscious people of the world are worried about the future of the world because of the mass misconduct. If the present system all over the world is not changed, we are sure to meet a great irreparable disaster in the future.
The text being a piece of a study of environment centers on the environmental problem. Here, the text asserts the importance of environment on human life and it must be preserved for the sake of continuity of human life. Presenting such ideas, the essayist is appealing to all to preserve the environment.
Critical Thinking:
Chaudhary presents the latent irrationality within the so-called rationality of the human beings and tries to persuade us to think seriously on our actions. She stresses repeatedly that there should not be any political play of power and personal power on the issues of environment in which the life of new generation itself is associated. Hence, Anuradha’s individual contribution to generate the public consciousness through this essay is highly appreciative and praise worthy. So far the essay presents the ideas on environmental problems and issues, it is very appreciative in a sense that it warns the people and makes them conscious for the conservation of the environment. But the essayist only concerns on the destruction and only destruction. She completely ignores the positive signs and steps carried out in this concern. As a result she appears to be so partial and full of biasness.
As I read this story, it has made me draw my attention towards the degraded environment of Kathmandu. Seeing its condition, it is true that we have really been too much indifferent and irresponsible. People here in Katmandu are suffering from various environmental problems, such as air pollution, water pollution, lack of open space and so on. As a result, life's getting too much difficult. Similarly, due to the river pollution, the aquatic life is also much affected. If it continues, there will be too difficult to sustain life in the days to come. So it has compelled me to take some action for its improvement.

To His Coy Mistress
Andrew Marvell
Literal Comprehension
 To his coy mistress is a love poem composed by Andrew Marvell. The poet has sunk in the deep ocean of love. If the beloved and his lover had plenty of time, they would sit down and choose the right path of life. Then they would spend long time loving each other. He would love her ten years before the flood came. He would spend two thousand years to praise the rest parts of her body. He would spend an age to describe her heart. He has estimated her value so great. But he sees and hears time moving fast and he fears he will not meet her because he is on the bank of Humber and she is on the bank of the Ganga. As time brought her on this earth, when she will be in her marble grave, she will not even hear the sound of his coming loving song. The preserved virginity and the poet's lust will turn to ashes. No one will embrace her in the grave.
So, the poet suggests her to enjoy happily each other when she is young beautiful and smart. They should not waste time and delay so that their lives will be sweet. The poet is very crazy for making strong love and uses all strength and energy to quench his thirst of lust he says that they should hurry for enjoying love.
The poet may be trying to suggest us that we should do every duty or work in good time. Time is passing very fast. If the poet's beloved would do the same for a long time. There was no point in hurrying for enjoying love. But time and tide wait for no one. One should enjoy life in youth and there will be no charm in the old age. An old person is a dead for romance. One should repent if not enjoyed in the youth.
Critical Thinking
Andrew Marvell looks very crazy for love to fulfill his lust but would a man love a girl only for sensual entertainment? Does a man really become mad or blind in love? Should a man be so crazy to fulfill his lust? Should not one think about the future before making sexual intercourse? Isn't there a limitation of love? Is it good for a man to hurry for lust? Is love only youth and beauty? Isn't there feeling of love in the great of old people? So, I don't totally agree with the poet.
Love is life. But there should not be selfishness in love. There should be faith, truth and beauty in love. True love never dies but some people lose their love in this case. Here I remember an event. The boy was about twenty years. He loved a girl who studied in college with him. They loved each other very much but the girl was married with another boy. The boy could not bear it and committed suicide.
Extensive and critical reading
........"To His Coy Mistress," acclaimed long after Marvell's death a masterly work, is a lyrical poem that scholars also classify as a metaphysical poem. Metaphysical poetry, pioneered by John Donne, tends to focus on the following:
  • Startling comparisons or contrasts of a metaphysical (spiritual, transcendent, abstract) quality to a concrete (physical, tangible, sensible) object. In "To His Coy Mistress," for example, Marvell compares love to a vegetable (line 11) in a waggish metaphor.  
  • Mockery of idealized romantic poetry through crude or shocking imagery, as in lines 27 and 28 ("then worms shall try / that long preserved virginity'). 
  • Gross exaggeration (hyperbole), as in line 15 ("two hundred [years] to adore each breast]. 
  • Expression of personal, private feelings, such as those the young man expresses in "To His Coy Mistress."
  • Presentation of a logical argument, or syllogism. In "To His Coy Mistress," this argument may be outlined as follows: (1) we could spend decades or even centuries in courtship if time stood still and we remained young. (2) But time passes swiftly and relentlessly. (3) Therefore, we must enjoy the pleasure of each other now, without further ado. The conclusion of the argument begins at Line 33 with "Now therefore." 
The Title
The title suggests that the author looked over the shoulder of a young man as he wrote a plea to a young lady and that the author then reported the plea exactly as the young man expressed it. However, the author added the title, using the third-person possessive pronoun "his" to refer to the young man. The word "coy" tells the reader that the lady is no easy catch; the word "mistress" can mean lady, manager, caretaker, courtesan, sweetheart, and lover. It can also serve as the female equivalent of master. In "To His Coy Mistress," the word appears to be a synonym for lady or sweetheart. In reality, of course, Marvell wrote the entire poem. 
The Persona (The Young Man)
Although Andrew Marvell writes "To His Coy Mistress" in first-person point of view, he presents the poem as the plea of another man (fictional, of course). The poet enters the mind of the man and reports his thoughts as they manifest themselves. The young man is impatient, desperately so, unwilling to tolerate temporizing on the part of the young lady. His motivation appears to be carnal desire rather than true love; passion rules him. Consequently, one may describe him as immature and selfish. 
Theme and Literal Comprehension
Here is the gist of Andrew Marvell's poem: In response to a young man’s declarations of love for a young lady, the lady is playfully hesitant, artfully demure. But dallying will not do, he says, for youth passes swiftly. He and the lady must take advantage of the moment, he says, and “sport us while we may.” Oh, yes, if they had “world enough, and time” they would spend their days in idle pursuits, leisurely passing time while the young man heaps praises on the young lady. But they do not have the luxury of time, he says, for “time's winged chariot” is ever racing along. Before they know it, their youth will be gone; there will be only the grave. And so, the poet pleads her to make love soon.
The poem does not present a scene in a specific place in which people interact. However, the young man and the young lady presumably live somewhere in England (the native land of the author), perhaps in northeastern England near the River Humber. The poet mentions the Humber in line 7.
Young Man: He pleads with a young lady to stop playing hard to get and accept his love. 
Young Lady: A coquettish woman. 
1.....coyness: Evasiveness, hesitancy, modesty, coquetry, reluctance; playing hard to get.
2.....which . . .  walk: Example of enjambment (carrying the sense of one line of verse over to the next line without a pause). 
3.....Ganges: River in Asia originating in the Himalayas and flowing southeast, through India, to the Bay of Bengal. The young man here suggests that the young lady could postpone her commitment to him if her youth lasted a long, long time. She could take real or imagined journeys abroad, even to India. She could also refuse to commit herself to him until all the Jews convert to Christianity. But since youth is fleeting (as the poem later points out), there is no time for such journeys. She must submit herself to him now. 
4.....rubies: Gems that may be raised red or purplish red. In folklore, it is said that rubies protect and maintain virginity. Ruby deposits occur in various parts of the world, but the most precious ones are found in Asia, including Myanmar (Burma), India, Thailand, Sri, Lanka, Afghanistan, and Russia. 
5.....Humber: River in northeastern England. It flows through Hull, Andrew Marvell's hometown. 
6.....Flood. . . Jews: Resorting to hyperbole, the young man says that his love for the young lady is unbounded by time. He would love her ten years before great flood that Noah outlasted in his ark (Gen. 5:28-10:32) and would still love her until all Jews became Christians at the end of the world. 
7. vegetable love: love cultivated and nurtured like a vegetable so that it flourishes prolifically, short time love
8.....this state: This lofty position; this dignity. 
9.....Time's winged chariot: In Greek mythology, the sun was personified as the god Apollo, who rode his golden chariot from east to west each day. Thus, Marvell here associates the sun god with the passage of time.
10...marble vault: The young lady's tomb.
11...worms: a morbid phallic reference.
12...quaint: Preserved carefully or skillfully.
13...dew: The 1681 manuscript of the poem uses glew (not dew), apparently as a coined past tense for glow
14...transpires: Erupts, breaks out, emits, gives off. 
15...slow-chapt: Chewing or eating slowly. 
16...Thorough: Through.
 “What Is Intelligence, Anyway?”
Isaac Asimov
Isaac Asimov writes about how he has always scored high academic tests. How he scored 160 when an average score was 100 and that there were people that made a big fuss over that. And that the auto repair man didn't seem as intelligent as he was but the auto repair man would always fix his car. Then he says that if the auto repair guy would make questions for an intelligent test that he would fail it and he would look like a moron. The auto repair guy tells Isaac a joke and falls for it. Isaac tells him if any others have gotten tricked the guy tells him that he has gotten quite a few and knew that Isaac would fall for it because he was so damned educated.
“What Is Intelligence, Anyway?” is an article that was written by Isaac Asimov. Isaac Asimov is a Russian who grew up in America. With being well educated, he received his Ph.D. in chemistry from Columbia University. He is known as the writer for all types of readers from specialized to non specialized. Base on his article, Dr. Asimov is considered to be the most intelligent an in the base for his score is 160 while other people is around 100 in the intelligence test. According to the article, he is a prideful man; he always thinks he is highly intelligent, and he expects other people to think so, too. Not only that, he also puts himself on the same level with the people who make up the intelligence tests.
As we are reading through his introduction about how intelligent he is, we think that this man is too proud. But as we continue reading the article, we find that he slowly recognizes his intelligence does not apply on every aspect of his life. Dr. Asimov told the readers about his auto repairman, who he always brings his car to when it has any problem, that his auto repairman would never pass the score of 80 on this intelligence test if he takes it. However, the car is always fixed every time Dr. Asimov brings to the auto repairman. In the middle of the article, Dr. Asimov said that he is an intelligent man wherever he could use his academic training and his verbal talents, but when it comes to do something intricate or hard, working with his hands then he would be a “moron.”
One thing that we like the most about Dr. Asimov is that he is not embarrassing to tell people how he got tricked by an auto repairman who cannot even pass the score of 80 in the intelligence test.

“What is intelligence anyway” is an argumentative essay. In this essay writer Isaac Asimov makes an argument that intelligence is not absolute but is a function of the society.
Intelligence is the subjective matter. A person intelligent in one field may be a loggerhead in another field. It may be possible that a person is intelligent in two or more field but he/she will still be lagging behind the another field. Hence, we can’t term the persons as intelligent in general. For example a good teacher might be a bad student and vice versa. A good administrator may be a bad father. Hence a person is intelligent in administration but bad with family.
Asimov also focuses on the fact that intelligent is the outcome to experience and knowledge. Asimov is intelligent in study and literature but he is not intelligent to maintain his car. His automobile repairman is far intelligent in this field than him. But on the other hand Asimov is far more intelligent in study and literature than his automobile repair man. Hence, we understood that the intelligent is the subjective matter. Any person cannot be intelligent in general. It depends on the particular field of concerned.

Extensive Reading

  • There is no standard definition of “intelligence”. Popular thinking and the best efforts of legislatures, agencies and academics to the contrary, no generally agreed upon definition of intelligence exists. This problem is exacerbated when the newly formed intelligence communities in law enforcement and the private sector are included.
  • Developing such a definition is important in order to create realistic expectations in the minds of the decision makers, intelligence is designed to support. This is particularly true in a democracy where the electorate views the notions of secrecy and unaccountable power often linked with intelligence activities with hesitation.
  • Two activities, secrecy and covert operations, typically associated with intelligence are not, in fact, necessary to define intelligence. Secrecy, or more accurately, confidentiality, is only necessary to preserve options for the decision maker that the intelligence activity supports. Covert operations, on the other hand, are better viewed as an act of policy than as an intelligence activity.
  • Common threads run through many of the earlier attempts to define intelligence, however. These threads, pulled together, result in a good working definition of intelligence:
Intelligence is a process, using primarily unstructured information from all sources and focused externally, that is designed to reduce the level of uncertainty for a decision maker.

Often we define intelligence with respect to human qualities. Thus, as we tend to consider ourselves as the most intelligent species, we compare other species to ourselves. Yet, is this really possible? One scientist suggests that humans tend to ignore any intelligence that is somewhat different than our own: "We willingly accept the idea of intelligence in a life form only if the intelligence displayed is on the same evolutionary wavelength as our own. Technology automatically indicates intelligence. An absence of technology translates into an absence of intelligence."There is no certain basis for the assumption that all intelligence is human-like intelligence. Indeed, there are undeniable trends, such as large brains in mammals and larger neocortical in primates, but to generalize these correlations cannot always be done. Truly, intelligence seems to be relative, in that it evolves to fulfill the needs of the particular species. How, then, can we truly compare the intelligence of a crocodile with that of a whale or that of a human? Evolutionarily speaking, scientists agree that organisms seem to have become more complex behaviorally. Some argue that this is correlated with increased brain size. Changes to the brain have occurred at specific structures.
EEBottom of Form
Linda Pastan
 “Ethics” appears in Linda Pastan’s sixth volume of poetry, Waiting for My Life (1981), a title that hints at the tensions for which the New York-born poet is best known: the challenges of living in that “waiting” place between the magic and the tedium of the ordinary; between the artistic and the domestic life; between the rewards and the losses of aging and death. A kind of “aesthetic ethic” itself emerges from the body of her poems, one proclaiming that simple language and images of the ordinary are especially capable of bearing mystery and of resisting easy answers.
“Ethics” itself embodies this resistance. The poem takes shape first in a memory from school days and is then bridged, through images of frames and fire, to an understanding acquired in the poet’s older years. The question the ethics teacher poses “so many years ago” is unanswerable partly because it is not “real”; the students answer it “halfheartedly,” at best. Having posed a hypothetical fire in a museum, the teacher wants the students to make a clear choice, between saving “a Rembrandt painting / or an old woman who hadn’t many / years left anyhow.” The surprising answer for the poet arrives years later, in a “real museum,” as the poet stands “before a real Rembrandt.”
Literal Comprehension and extensive reading
In Linda Pastan's poem "Ethics," the speaker recounts a moral dilemma that her teacher would ask every fall, which has been haunting her for a long time.  The question was "if there were a fire in a museum / which would you save, a Rembrandt painting / or an old woman who hadn't many / years left anyhow?" and the speaker tells us through the theme that ethics and moral values can be only learned from the reflection which comes through experience and maturity.  In this poem, imagery, diction, and figures of speech contribute to the development of the theme.

The speaker in the poem uses images to help to support the theme.  For example the statement that "sometimes the woman borrowed my grandmother's face" displays the inability of the children to relate the dilemma to them, something that the speaker has learned later on with time and experience.  In this poem, the speaker is an old woman, and she places a high emphasis on the burden of years from which she speaks by saying "old woman, / or nearly so, myself." "I know now that woman / and painting and season are almost one / and all beyond saving by children." clearly states that the poem is not written for the amusement of children but somebody that has reached the speaker's age, thus supporting the idea of the theme that children cannot help or understand her or anybody of her age.  In addition, when the speakers describes the kids in the classroom as "restless on hard chairs" and "caring little for picture or old age" we can picture them in our minds sitting, ready to leave the class as soon as possible, unwilling and unable to understand the ethics dilemma or what the speaker is feeling.

The choice of words of the author also contributes to the development of the theme.  For example, the use of words like "drafty," "half-heartedly," and "half-imagined" give the reader the idea of how faintly the dilemma was perceived and understood by the children, thus adding to the idea that the children cannot understand the burden the speaker has upon herself.  In addition, referring to a Rembrandt as just a "picture" and to the woman as "old age," we can see that these two symbols, which are very important to the speaker and to the poem, are considered trivial by the children, thus contributing to the concept that the children cannot feel what the speaker is feeling.  To add to the idea of old age of the woman, and to define the point of view more clearly, the speaker uses "old woman" a number of times.

 The speaker uses the metaphors "The colors / within this frame are darker than autumn, / darker even than winter" and "the browns of earth, / though earth's most radiant elements burn / through the canvas." to give us the impression that the painting is not just a simple drawing, but it is something alive, something connected to the earth which is worth saving, thus putting it at the same level of the old woman, and thus making the dilemma more balanced.  In addition, the idea of a color "burning through the canvas" puts more emphasis on the painting being something supernatural, thus increasing its status in the poem to be as high as (and maybe even higher than) the old woman.  Symbolism is also used at the end of the poem, when the speaker describes the color of the painting as "darker than autumn, / darker even than winter" which adds to the idea that the painting is something that represents old age and death but that is also something natural, like a season.  In addition, by saying that "I now know that woman / and painting and season are almost one / and all beyond saving by children" the speaker implies that both the painting and the woman represent something old, wise, and decadent, and are something that ethics say we cannot and should not easily give up, but children are not able to understand that, therefore they cannot save them.
            In conclusion, this poem is not just about a lesson of ethics learned in school by a student.  Instead, this poem is about the life of an old woman, the view of life children have of old things and old people and of life, and true beauty and importance things of age have, either for being wise and experienced or just for being there for so long. I have to admit that I did not take this poem too seriously at first, but after examining it closely and thinking about it, I have discovered its message and learned to appreciate its deepness.
Scientific Inquiry: Invention and Test
Carl Hempel
Carl Hempel (1905-1997) was a prominent figure in the logical-positivist, or logical empiricist, movement in philosophy that dominated the middle of the 20th century. He is among the many who promoted the hypothetic-deductive model of science. On this model, scientific method begins and ends with hypotheses, or guesses, about what would explain the phenomenon under investigation. Hypotheses are needed to begin research, since we would not know what to observe without some explanatory conjecture. And hypotheses are the end of scientific investigation, since the most we can hope for is a well confirmed hypothesis. Thus Hempel rejects Newton’s methodology by embracing hypotheses. He also rejects Hume inasmuch as he argues that confirming evidence does gives us good reason to accept a hypothesis as true, even if it does not prove it. Like Hume, Hempel argues that the logic of confirmation is formally fallacious, though his argument is different from Hume’s. Hempel argues that observable consequences are deduced from the hypothesis (thus the name, hypothetico-deductive model), and the hypothesis is confirmed if the consequences obtain, disconfirmed if they do not. This logic of confirmation, as Hempel points out, is formally fallacious, but this only shows that confirmation does not constitute logical proof. Nevertheless, he argues, since the hypothesis would have been rejected if disconfirmed, confirmation provides some reason to accept it.
Study Questions:
·         _ what is the difference between induction and deduction according to Hempel?
·         _ Why is it impossible to generate hypotheses by inductive inference?
·         _ Why are hypotheses invented rather than inferred?
·         _ What is the “narrow inductivist” conception of scientific inquiry? Why is it impossible?   To what extent does it resemble Newton’s conception?
·         _ Why is science nevertheless “inductive in a wider sense”?
·         _ How is the objectivity of science ensured?
·         _ Does the historical case of Semmelweis confirm Hempel’s model of science? If so, is Hempel arguing in a circle?
The Wretched Stone
Van Allsburg

The Wretched Stone begins with a notice reading: "Excerpts from the log of the Rita Ann. Randall Ethan Hope, Captain." We read, then, the captain's record of an extraordinary journey. The captain writes about loading supplies onto the ship at the start of the voyage, and the fine crew that has been assembled by first mate Mr. Howard. He notes that many of the men are avid readers, musicians, and storytellers, and as the voyage is under way, they are able to entertain themselves wonderfully.
The captain records the sighting of an uncharted island and decides to disembark with his crew to look for fruit and fresh water. Then he records their sojourn into the island's interior. He describes lush vegetation that bears no fruit, bitter water, and an overpowering sickly sweet smell. He also describes an object the crew found and brought aboard: a gray rock with one smooth and glowing surface. As the crew sets sail again, the captain describes their fascination with the stone. All they seem to do is sit and stare into it. Soon the captain notes that something is wrong with the crew — they do not speak or play their instruments anymore. He believes they may have contracted some sort of fever from the stone, and he plans to throw it overboard. The next day he wakes to find that the crew members have locked themselves into the hold with the stone. A storm approaches, and the captain is fearful — how will he sail the ship alone? He pounds on the door of the hold until finally it swings open. He is horrified to find that each member of his crew has turned into an ape.
The next entry records that the storm has passed, though both masts and the ship's rudder are lost. The mysterious stone has gone dark. The men are still apes. As the boat drifts and waits for rescue, the captain discovers that playing the violin and reading to the crew has a positive effect. Discovering that the stone has begun to glow again, he covers it up. He soon reports that the men have returned to normal; those among them who knew how to read return most quickly to their natural forms.
The final entries record that the captain and crew have been rescued. The captain decides to burn the boat and sink it and the stone to the bottom of the sea and not to talk about the strange events with anyone. The crew, he reports is back to normal — except for one thing: an unnatural appetite for bananas.
Special Features

Children will quickly notice The Wretched Stone's unusual structure. Instead of being written like a traditional narrative, the story is laid out in the form of entries into the captain's logbook. Readers experience the drama of the crew's transformation through the confused and terrified eyes of the captain himself. It is fun to look at how Chris Van Allsburg dates the captain's entries and how the tone of the entries changes to reflect the captain's changing circumstances and mood as the stone begins to affect the crew.

The content of the story is unusual, as well. We are never told what the stone is, how it came to be, or why it has such an extraordinary power over those who spend time with it. "Why monkeys?" we ask ourselves. Why it is those crew members that know how to read are more quickly transformed back into humans? The stone could be a metaphor for television in many ways — a glowing object that draws humans to stare at it for hours at a time and shuts down (or just doesn't make use of) creative parts of the brain:
It is a rock, approximately two feet across. It is roughly textured, gray in color, but a portion of it is flat and smooth as glass. From this surface comes a glowing light that is quite beautiful and pleasing to look at.
The crew members first stop reading, playing music, dancing, and working, and then finally become monkeys that simply gather around the stone and stare. The eerie light reflects off the blank faces of the monkeys like the flickering light from a television. When the stone is destroyed, the crew members slowly come back to their senses — those who can read are perhaps more able to quickly begin flexing the creative muscles of their mind again and thus return to their original form. Whether the stone is an exact metaphor for television or simply invented to describe how people can be lured away from the creative activities that bring joy and energy to life, The Wretched Stone provides an excellent forum for discussing these ideas with young people.
Keeping Errors at Bay
Bertrand Russell
The writer provides multiple examples of mistakes that generally people commit in their day to day life. His main idea is to provide suggestions to avoid the mistakes. We need careful, serious, critical and analytical mind to get rid of these errors. People generally believe whatever others say and that may be one of their mistakes to be wrong. At the same time we keep errors at bay because we do not like to listen other peoples different opinions and think that ours is the most beautiful idea. Following are some of the reasons because of which we become victim of the errors:
*        self-esteem
*        fate and death
*        superstitions, social dogmas, traditions
*        conservation
*        ignorance
*        fear
*        lack of critical, analytical mind
*        self centered, unfair judgment
*        overconfidence
How can we get rid of these?
Ø  Observe ourselves, things, matters etc.
Ø  confront the  other people's logic with reason
Ø  know other's psychology
Ø  avoid self esteem, superstition, egocentrism
Ø  be skeptic on unproved ideas
Ø  have deep understanding of the things, matters etc
Ø  develop comparative ideas, critical mind
Ø  have tolerance on other's ideas
Yudhisthira's Wisdom
Source: The Mahabharat
Literal Comprehension:
Once Pandava brothers were wandering in a forest to hunt a deer, but the deer in their sight disappeared abruptly. In the meantime, they grew thirsty and couldn't move ahead. Yudhisthira, the eldest brother, sent one of his brothers Nakula in search of water. But he didn't come back for a long time. So, he sent all his brothers one after the other gradually but none of them returned with any information of source of water nearby. Therefore, ultimately, Yudhisthira himself set out to fetch water and his brothers. After a short walk, he noticed a beautiful pool on the bank of which were lying all his brothers either unconscious or dead. Though he was in extreme distress and sorrow due to this event, he bent to drink water from the pool since his thirst overpowered his grief. But an unknown voice warned him not to drink water before answering his questions. So, Yudhisthira tactfully answered all the questions asked by the voice i.e. Yama, the God of Justice and Death, whereas his brother had disobeyed him and as such were prostrate on the ground. His philosophical answers pleased the God and he became ready to revive one of his brothers. Yudhisthira utilizing his wisdom abandoned his selfishness and selected, on moral grounds, his step-brother for revival. As a result, the god appeared in front Yudhisthira, highly appreciated him for his patience, righteousness and wisdom and restored all his brothers to life.
From the moral and religious point of view, the story holds tremendous significance. It has conveyed a message that a morally upright person if acts as per the religious and moral principles, can ultimately outstrip all the hurdles and difficulties that arise in his life and lives the life of a respected personality. This story has presented Yudhisthira in this position. Basically, this story intends to teach the readers that human beings should have the power of endurance, wisdom and righteousness to achieve success in every walk of life. These characteristics, in fact, help them to solve any kind of problems in hardships and difficulties. The person who doesn't possess these qualities suffers in life. In this story, Yudhisthira with these qualities became able to save all his four brothers. The philosophical queries of Yama and tactful answers of Yudhisthira also interest the reader’s much. Ydhisthira's answers like mother, giving up pride, anger and desire are all wisdom-based and philosophically correct.
Critical Thinking:
As we read the story thoroughly with concentration, we find that from the moral and religious point of view the story is appreciable. It sounds a charming tale. But when, we as a critical thinker, make attempts to separate wheat from the chaff, it undergoes several drawbacks and shortcomings. If we try to relate this story to the one in (he present context, we come to notice that people don't have much respect on or regard for morality and religion. Modern people are chiefly concerned with material happiness. Similarly, on the other hand, we can raise doubts over the existence of god in this world. Patience, right conduct, wisdom, as well as endurance are not rewarded on this earth. We have a great concern over the answers given by Yudhisthira, which sound quite simple but such philosophical answers are not expected from the direct questions of Yama. From our perspectives, man without desires can never be rich, nor can we lose our anger. Similarly, a man can't abandon pride and ambitioning, on their absence, success will be a mere a dream. As such in all these aspects, we disagree with the writer along with one event in which all the Pandava brothers are restored to life even after the death -this is absolutely impossible in reality.
As I went through the story carefully, I came to realize the reality of life. The concept that real happiness of life stands on the platform of right conduct ,wisdom, patience and endurance has now changed my mode of thinking about several aspects of life. I was never convinced earlier that all these qualities would one day be rewarded. But now Yudhisthira's brothers' restoration of life has wiped out all my illusions and on my part, reverence to god has increased a lot. Even I was able to grab some philosophical concepts which have always appeared as my subject of interest. In totality, the secrecy of being a great person in life on moral and religious grounds is vivid to me so far.
The Brave Little Parrot Buddhist Legend
(Rafe Martin’s Adoption)
Literal Comprehension:
Once upon a time, Lord Buddha was born as a parrot in the forest. Abruptly, the forest caught fire. All the animals started running away to save their life. The parrot also flew towards the safe place but as he was flying over the forest, he saw his fellow animals (trapped in the fiery forest. So, he decided to do something to save them. As such, he flew to the river, dipped into it, flew back over the forest and sprinkled the drops of water over the forest from its body and feathers. He repeated this activity time and again. In the meantime, the gods above were watching the foolish act of the parrot and laughed at him. One of the gods felt pity on him and disguised himself in to a golden eagle, came to the parrot and told him to stop this activity and save his life. But, the parrot didn't take heed of his absurd advice and rather expected his help in his mission. Being impressed by the parrot, he shed the flow of tears over the forest which could extinguish the fire and thus he gave new life- to the parrot and all other animals of the forest. This is a tale taken from the Buddhist legend. This story recounts how a small parrot saved the life of animals and birds in the forest by his courageous attempt.
Once, the Buddha was born as a parrot, which lived in a forest. One day a storm fell upon his forest home and soon the whole forest was on fire. The little parrot, which was flying towards the safety, saw that many animals were trapped with no chance of escape. He wanted to save the life of the animals. He so flew to the river, dipped himself in to the water, and flew back over the raging fire. Then he released some drop of water over the burning forest shaking his wings. But they disappeared before reaching the ground. He got tired and his whole body was hurt, but he did not stop his work. At that time some of the gods happen to look down. They laughed at the foolish attempt of the bird. But, one of the gods changed himself into a golden eagle came to the parrot and asked him to stop, such hopeless task. But the parrot replied that he needed someone to help rather than advice. Moved by the parrot's statements, the eagle wants to help him. He began to weep and streams of tears fell off his eyes. They were like cold rain upends the fire. The flames died down and the smoke began to clear. A new life come to the ground; the grasses, trees, and the animals got new life. The parrot also got new life feathers of different colors. The animals looked at the parrot flying happily with new life. They were surprised at the wonderful happening.
The story is quite impressive in terms of giving moral lesson to the readers. Its main gist is: 'Courage and patience are the best means to solve any kind of problem'. If the parrot hadn't been so courageous, if he hadn't been so determined and dedicated lo his moral duly, he wouldn't have been able to put out the fire. Similarly, the story teaches us that service lo the fellow in need is the actual service to the God.' If the parrot hadn't helped his friends, all of them would have died. Later, god was quite happy and gave him the new and brighter life.
Critical Thinking:
The story from the religious point of view is well appreciating. It gives a moral lesson which is globally acceptable. But, in the modern world the people have been so busy and selfish that it is almost impossible to get a man like the parrot helping to others selflessly. Courage and patience are not always rewarded and valued on this earth. God's influence is beautifully slated in the story but we have utmost doubt over the god's existence in this modern world. Some evenly are somewhat incredible because extinguishing the fire by means of the eagle's tears is almost unbelievable. The presentation of god as the spectator to its creature's agony is exactly paradox to the meaning of god's existence. In fact, gods are saviors; they are not supposed to be indifferent to human suffering.
As I read this story, it reminded me of one incident that had once taken place in my village. When I was in my village, a hut caught fire. Many people gathered there and they heard a small baby crying inside the burning hut. But nobody was ready to help him. Ultimately, I ventured lo gel in lo the hut and saved the fife of the baby. This story has encouraged and inspired me to get involved in selfless service.
If Not Higher
I.L Peretz
Literal Comprehension:
The story is about the mystery of where the Rabbi of Nemirov goes and what he does during the Penitential Prayers.  Everyone in the village seems to wonder where the Rabbi is during this time, but while the Jews of the village are content to assume the Rabbi is in heaven, the Litvak doesn’t believe it.  The Litvak tries to pretend that he doesn’t care where the Rabbi of Nemirov goes during the Penitential Prayers or what he is doing, but he secretly wants to discover the secret.  The Litvak decides to spy on the Rabbi, hides under the Rabbi’s bed and then follows him when he leaves, all the while believing that he, as a Litvak, is more clever than others and is the only one who could accomplish this goal since Litvaks would never get caught or become tired waiting as others would.  The Litvak successfully follows the Rabbi and sees him pretend to be a peasant, chop wood and deliver it to a poor sick Jewish woman.  What the Litvak finds is that the Rabbi not only actually does the Penitential Prayers, he also helped out a fellow Jew and said the Prayers for the woman.  After seeing this, the Litvak comes to believe in the Rabbi and the Rabbi’s work.  Needs to include the all-important “if not higher”. Rabbi of Nemirov used to disappear from every penitential prayer. People used to think that he had ascended the heaven. He was supposed to save them from Satan. But Litvak, one of the Jews, didn't believe this remark of the people and laughed at it. Once, he decided to find the fact about him. So entered the Rabbi's house secretly, watched him throughout the night .When it was nearly the morning, Rabbi changed his dress as a farmer and set out to the forest with an axe and a rope. In the forest, lie collected the firewood and returned back. On his way to his house, he stopped at an old woman's hut. He lent the wood and helped her to kindle the fire. In the meantime, he recited all three portions of penitential prayers. Litvak followed him all the way and was so impressed by him that he became Rabbi's disciple at the end.
The moral of the story could be that one needs to fully understand something before making judgment.  In the story the Litvak, and other Lithuanian Jews, rely on a commentary on the Bible, the Talmud rather than the Bible or the teachings of the Rabbi.  Because the Litvak only seems to rely on the Talmud, which is someone else’s views on the Bible, the Litvak doesn’t trust in the Rabbi or his practices. Similar to the discussion on the way television brainwashes viewers into believing things that may or not be true, the Talmud is also only commentary, not fact, and can lead people astray.  Once the Litvak himself investigates what the Rabbi does, he comes to realize that the Rabbi is indeed working for the greater good of the Jews. 'If Not Higher' teaches us that true worship of god is the true service to the mankind. It strongly rejects the way of praying to the god by reciting the words of prayers but it advises us to help the poor and the needy people instead. The story proves the fact the god and its blessings are received not by means words of the prayers but by means of extending the hands of service.
Critical Evaluation
I think the underlying message in the story is a good one…learn the facts before judging.  It also has a good ending, which would be especially positive for Jewish people since it supports what they believe in.  I also think that the story keeps your attention since you want to know what the Rabbi of Nemirov is doing when he’s expected to be doing the Penitential Prayers and where he disappears to.  It’s nice that the story has a positive ending with both someone in need being helped and also the Litvak’s eyes being opened to the Rabbi’s mission.  I also think the story has a comic element to it, with the Litvak’s ultimate confidence in him since he is a Litvak, while he has much less confidence in those that aren’t Litvaks.  The Litvak is portrayed as almost cocky in his confidence. Though, the story from moral and religious point of view seems quite impressive and memorable but if it is looked in the present context, it seems unbelievable, since in this modern time, people have become too much selfish and mean. As a result, it is too difficult to impart its moral lesson to them. It doesn’t mean anything to them. Rabbi's ascending to heaven alive can't be accepted in this modern world. Existence of God and heaven is in fact out of question. People like Rabbi who have lived the life for the sake of others can't be found in the world.
I do have some problems with the story.  First, I wonder whether the writer was a Litvak? Why only to see themselves as part of that group, not individuals?  Also, some of the information is difficult to believe.  After the Rabbi dresses as a peasant, he stops in the kitchen and takes an axe under the bed.  Why would there be a bed in the kitchen?  Regardless of where the bed is, why would an axe be under it when it would generally be stored elsewhere?  Also, the thought that no one else has a clue as to where the Rabbi disappears to is odd…the Rabbi leaves his home in the morning and we’re told that everyone else is up and about, how is it that only the Litvak was able to follow him, or even see him walking through the village?  Finally, while I like what I perceive to be the moral of the story, if people spent all of their time trying to validate everything they are told, read, or see, what would ever get accomplished?  I think that it is important for people to question things, but there must also be trusted sources of information.
I think that I will use the message from this story to help remind myself that sometimes it’s important to dig deeper into things so that I fully understand them before making my own judgment.  Always believing what is portrayed on TV, in the newspapers or even what family and friends believe can cause problems.  We see it in everyday life where children grow up to have the same political views as their parents, assuming that since their parents voted one way, it was the right thing to do.  Without doing research, it is impossible to completely get an accurate understanding of the big picture and one could find oneself fighting for something they don’t actually believe in. As I go through the story, it reminds me of a man who is respectable in my society. He is fifty years old. He never goes to the church and temple and prays to god. But, in the village, he is well known for his kind and selfless help to the people. He donates his property every year little by little for the homeless children and people,
The Cricket
P' u Sung-Ling
Literal Comprehension:
During the Ming Reign in China cricket fighting was a popular pastime for the noblemen at court. Their wishes were fulfilled by the common men who used to supply cricket for them. Though, in the writer's county, Floral Shade, the cricket was not common, yet the magistrate's submission of a mighty warrior cricket to get favor from the superiors ultimately brought the responsibility of supplying the crickets as a royal supplier regularly to the court. Make Good, one of the residents of Floral Shade got the post of Neighborhood Head to accomplish the task in this concern too. But he was nearly bankrupt, since he couldn’t collect the enough taxes from the people and had to make up money from his pocket. Same thing happened in collecting the cricket too. He couldn't fill the quota set by the higher ups and as a result was severely punished. So he desired to die rather than to live such dominated life.
Then his wife consulted a fortuneteller who had recently come to the village to know about their fortune. She was provided with one slip of paper where their fortune was mentioned. In fact there was a picture on the piece of paper which showed where the crickets he was searching were found. As per the hint, he was able to cage a cricket of the required standard. But as that was brought to his house it was killed by his son. His son, to escape from the action resulting from the father's fury, fell into the well .He was found in the position as he was dead. During this moment of grief he managed to get one cricket but which was feeble. Yet he tested it with other crickets in the battle but appeared to be the mightiest one since it defeated all other crickets so far. In this way it was supplied to the court .The noblemen were extremely pleased, As a result he was given an educational degree as an honor. Similarly he acquired one hundred hectares of land, a two story building thousands of sheep and oxen. Even his son regained consciousness.
The story The Cricket conveys a message that patience, endurance and optimism ultimately carry good luck resulting in to success in a man's life. Make Good though fell in difficulties, endured all these and remained patient and didn't forget his duty which gave him unexpected position and wealth. The story has sketched a clear picture of the then China when it was ruled by an authoritarian ruler. Make good without his fault gets penalty which is in fact one of the specialties of an authoritarian rule. All the state affairs are constrained by nobles, governors and magistrates who flatter higher authorities and secure the position. The Magistrate to ensure continuous favor punished the Make good an innocent one. At some places Make good has been presented as a person who was supposed to be born to face the evil days only, On the other hand the story also shows that sometimes human beings ensure their good fortune by learning the fortune from the fortune teller. In the story Make Good has also given a place to the supernatural elements and their effective practice and positive result out of them. Make good could make his life bright due to the presence of his son's spirit on the soul of the cricket. Cricket's befooling the rooster is also due to the same reason. This has also given a glimpse of the scenario of the court under an absolute rule in which nobles and other courtiers spend their time in trifles specifically in watching the games like cricket fighting and so on since they have luxurious and comfortable life. They don't make concern over the hardships of the people since nobody could dare to raise voice for their wellbeing.
Critical Thinking:
The story has several shortcomings that we find as we go through the story thoroughly. The authoritarian rule as shown in the story doesn't have any possible existence in the world as the world has almost been ruled through the democratic system regardless of some countries. Magistrate is presented as an innocent citizen facing the inhuman treatment in terms of punishment without any protest. But people of this era as governed by democratic principles if face this situation would react bitterly and compel the authorities to guarantee their rights to prevent the mistreatment to the innocent ones. Similarly we can put question mark over the fortune telling as to whether their prediction would be translated into reality. If so that no people would face hardships sufferings and troubles in their life. They would ensure their brighter life visiting the fortune teller in the beginning of the life. Presence of Make-good's son's spirit on the cricket is the matter of illusion for us. One question arises as to how Make-good’s son could regain consciousness after a year.
As I went through the story, I came to understand that in absolute rule, people experience injustice, inhuman and evil treatment from the superiors. And they always become the victims of mistreatmet.1 also realized that patience and .endurance are rewarded on this earth as Make good was rewarded. Sometimes fortune tellers are also found to be strongest elements to bring success in our life. The story has made me realize the fact that our life might undergo plenty of obstacles and disturbances, sorrows and hardships but we shouldn't lose our hope, one day we will achieve what we have expected so far.
The Parrot in the Cage
Lekhanath Poudel

Literal Comprehension: Lekhanath Poudel composed the poem "The Parrot in the Cage". The theme of the poem is about freedom, justice, happiness and serenity. The poem is a bitter satire on the then Rana regime that deprived Nepalese people freedom. The speaker has carefully painted the conditions that surround the parrot's life. The speaker is disappointed by the harsh reality of man's life. Away from its family, home, kin, friends, and the natural freedom man has forced the parrot to live a tragic life. Similar is the condition of the human life in Nepal of that period. Being a worshipper of nature, Poudel expresses his deep affinity to the natural world that provides him childhood appetite, which he wants in his later life. Having compelled to live away from his family, home and friends, Poudel pains for it and expresses nostalgia towards it. Finally, through the medium of parrot, voices of political, social, religious, spiritual and habitual life style and situation of human beings are exhumed in the poem. The poem clearly advocates the human instinct to live a free and struggled life away from the crowd.

Interpretation:  In this poem "The Parrot in the Cage", the poet is trying to advocates the freedom of people in the Rana regime. The Nepalese people had been ruled by the Ranas for one hundred and four years. During this period, people were deprived of enjoying all kinds of freedom. The speaker in the poem is disappointed by the harsh reality of man's life. Besides, man has been found to live away from his family, home, kin, friends, and the spiritual freedom that surround him in the rural life. Thus, man has been forced to live a caged life like the parrot. Man's indifference to animal's plight and the mentality of getting entertainment from imprisoning lower animals has been criticized in the poem. Living away from the nature man has invited more tragedy and sorrow in his life.

Critical thinking:  The speaker has carefully painted the conditions that surround the parrot's life. Through the plight of the parrot, the speaker compares the sorrowful description of human life, lack of justice and freedom, the aggression and the cruelty prevalent in the society. Being a worshipper of nature, Poudel expresses his deep affinity to the natural world that provides him childhood appetite, which he wants in his later life. Having compelled to live away from his family, home and friends, Poudel pains for it and expresses nostalgia towards it. More than that, Hindu tradition to pray and appeal God at the time of difficulty is spread all over the poem. In the philosophical level, the poem may be faultless, but I have reservation towards the voices of the parrot. In real life, does a parrot speak like human to express his sorrows?
Assimilation:  After reading this poem, I have realized that how cruel the Rana regime was. I always stand for the freedom of the human beings. As Jean jacks Rousseau said, "Man is born free and wants to live free". Thus, I request all the human beings not to capture any animal as well as not any citizens at the name of ruling system or any pleasure.

The poem “Don’t Cut Down the Trees, Brother Woodcutter” has been written by the famous Nepali poet Balkrishna Sama and translated into English by Michael Hutt. The poet has attributed the quality of mother to the tree, which is the source of life for humans. The poet requests woodcutter not to cut down trees because they are the source of life and he even calls trees as a ‘dead mother’ because they can’t pleas to us about their pain and suffering. But they always protect us from the sun and the rain. And we take a seat upon the trees as we use it for various purposes in our life. They help us to run our life smoothly. They carry us on their arms as a mother carries her children. We get different kinds of fruits and flowers from trees. They show their love and affection by kissing on our forehead as mother kisses her child with intense love and affection. Trees sing songs for us to entertain us and they provide water for us, which is the source of our life. They sing and entertain us but they can’t speak with us and complain about their problems.
            The poet further talks about winter season, when people gather in the house and enjoy the fires. People talk and sing, they go to bed and lie down comfortably. They are able to enjoy the fire and are able to have sound sleep because of trees. Outside it is very cold but inside it is very warm because of trees. Outside the house trees are covered with a veil of white frost. They are dozing silently. They pass cold nights with dreaming of sunshine childhoods. They always bless for the welfare and happy moment for the people. They always love us and wish for the warm life. But they can’t express their inner pains and thoughts in the cold winter. They wait until winter ends and as soon spring comes they spread their arms with new life and new beginnings. With new beginning they tell us not to cut off their branches. Finally, writer requests woodcutter not to cut down the trees because they are the sources of our life.
The writer expresses about the lack of human consciousness and selfish nature. Trees protect us from various problems like, winter, sunshine and rain, so we should think rationally and we should protect our mother. Like mother, trees also care us and make our life easier and comfortable and we should also care our mother. Though trees can’t speak and express their pains and sufferings, we should not exploit and destroy them. We should also react like a responsible child and show the same kind of love and care towards her. Trees are able to tolerate various pains and suffering but humans are only concerned to lead a happy life and they are not ready to bear any kind of pain and suffering. 
 The poet in the poem ‘Don’t cut down the trees, brother woodcutter’ has presented important issue which is concerned about human rationality. The poem satirizes the nature of people who try to exploit the nature but do not know to protect it. Trees are Saviour and protector of human life but humans are not able to protect them, they only look for short term benefit. Trees are dozing in the harsh winter but people are enjoying the fire inside the house, but they fail to realize that it is possible to have a sound sleep in the bed because of trees only. But they are not responsible towards their Saviour; trees. The tree has been presented as a mother, like mother it tolerates pains and suffering and doesn’t complain about it to its children. It is our responsibility to take care of our mother and savior. The poet is also concerned about the environmental issue and the responsibility of humans towards nature. Nature is the life of humans and we should know to utilize it properly. The poet has criticized about the selfish nature of humans. The poet only addresses about the pains of trees but there are various things, which are victimized by the people.
New Model Question – 2070 (Given by Tribhuvan University)
Time: 3 hours
Candidates are expected to answer the questions in their own words as far as practicable. The figures in the margin indicate full marks.
Answer ALL the questions
1.       Answer any TWO of the following:                                    [15x2]
a.       Read the following passage and answer the questions below:
It is many months now since I found myself obliged by conscience to end my silence and to take a public stand against my country's war in Vietnam. The considerations which led me to that painful decision have no disappeared; indeed, they have been magnified by the course of events since then. The war itself is intensified; the impact on my country is even more destructive. I cannot speak about the great themes of violence and non-violence, of social change and of hope for the future, without reflecting on the tremendous violence of Vietnam. Since the spring of 1967, when I first made public my opposition to my government’s policy, many persons have questioned me about the wisdom of my decision. “Why you?” they have said. “Peace and civils as rights don’t mix. Aren’t you hurting the cause of your people?” And when I hear such questions, I have been greatly saddened, for they mean that the inquirers have never rally known me, my commitment, or my calling. Indeed, that question suggests that they do not know the world in which they live.
In explaining my position, I have tried to make it clear that I remain perplexed- as I think everyone must be- by the complexities and ambiguities of Vietnam. I would not wish to underrate the need for a collective solution to this tragic war. I would wish neither to present North Vietnam or the National Liberation Front as paragons of virtue nor to overlook the role can they play in the successful resolution of the problem. While they both may have justifiable reasons to be suspicious of the good faith of the United States, life and history give eloquent testimony to the fact that conflicts are never resolved without trustful give-and-take on both sides. Since I am a preacher by calling, I suppose it is not surprising that I had several reasons for bringing Vietnam into the field of my moral vision. There is at the outset a very obvious and almost facile connection between the war in Vietnam and the struggle I and others have been waging in America.
(Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., “The Trumpet of Conscience”)
i)      Why did Dr. King feel that he need to clarify his position against the war?
ii)    Why didn’t Dr. King feel the United States could solve the problems between the two sides in Vietnam by fighting there?
iii)   Why did Dr. King bring Vietnam into the field of his moral vision?
iv)  Was Dr. King as concerned about Vietnamese victims as he was about U.S. victims? Explain.
b.       Apply the four levels of reading a text to Ray Bradbury’s “A sound of Thunder” or Lekhnath Paudyal’s “The Parrot in the Cage”.
c.       Who would you argue are more intelligent: men or women? Why? You can base your answer, if you wish, on Bertrand Russell’s essay “Keeping Error at Bay”.
Are good manners a matter of how we look at ourselves or how we look at other people? Explain. You can use Dr. Peale’s ideas as given in the essay “Courtesy: Key to a Happier World.”
2.    Answer any FIVE of the following:
a.       What do you think: If two people from two different linguistic groups, or religions, or tribes, or nationalities, or castes, fall in love, should they marry, even if their families are opposed? Give reasons for you answer.
b.       Edit this paragraph for coherence.
English, like other languages, has conflicting sayings about important matters like live, friendship, and work. In English we say about work, “Never put off till tomorrow what you can do today.” The message is that one can and should always work more- at least until all the work is done. In English we have this proverb: “All work and no play make Jack a dull boy.” The advice is not to work too much. Life without recreation makes one an uninterested person. How that is the language has two sayings that give opposite messages? We can assume that work is important to native English Speakers. They respect is a lot-perhaps too much. The second saying may be a kind of safety valve. It warms people against going too far in following the advice of the first saying.
c.       Describe a famous building or structures? Where is it? Who built it? When? What is it used for? What do you like or dislike about it?
d.       Tell a story from your life that supports the saying, “Experience is the best teacher”.
e.       Explain the unconventional interpretation in each joke below:
i.      STRAIGHT MAN:         Would you call me a taxi please
COMEDIAN:     Okay, You’re a taxi.
ii.    STRAIGHT MAN:         Who was that lady I saw you with last night.
COMEDIAN:     That was no lady. That was my wife.
Ans: (i) The funny reply okay. You’re a taxi illustrates that the reply is not contextual understanding but straight forward comedian took straight mans remark as a request so he accepts it saying okay. You’re a taxi. Such conversation is taken place many times in our life. (ii) Here in this funny conversation ‘lady’ stands for non- family member walking with a lady means romantic time with someone out of family. ‘Lady’ means not spouse but a woman with affair. That was my wife as a reply means a completion of understanding gap between to person.
f.        Café owner wants to attract children to her café. She has devised an ice-cream dish with cream, chocolate sauce, and strawberries in it. Invent two different two – or three- word phrases for
i.       The title for the café (specially catering for ice-cream, for children)
ii.      The name of the ice-cream (on the menu, containing cream, chocolate sauce, and strawberries)
Ans: (i) – Babs Ice zone – Children ice-cream House (ii) Ice- Lolly – strawberries – Choco- Coco – in – Choco- cream- all –Yammy- coco –Choco. Ice
3.       Answer any TEN of the following:
a.      Condense the main point of Parijat’s “New Year” into one sentence.
Ans: Everything has positive and negative aspects when it is utilized in human life but we should try out best to create something good even better out of worse so that there can be new hope and optimism for the existence as the arrival of ‘New Year’ and its effects in this poem.
b.      Edit the sentence “He resembles his brother, who is such a handsome man, and who has been known for a long time to be a hardworking kind of guy.”
                              Ans: He resembles his handsome, hardworking brother
c.       Choose the better of the two words shown in parentheses and rewrite each item as one sentence: “Some people feel that total honesty is essential in a loving relationship others feel it as dangerous to be completely honest. (however/therefore)
Ans: Some people feel that total honesty is essential in a loving relationship, however others feel it as dangerous to be completely honest,
d.       The best meaning of the underlined phrase in the sentence: “ I reconginze this attidute as a healthy components of our survival instinct and one that enables us to carry on so we can make additional choices that sustain us.” Is
i.      Part of our live
ii.    Part of the law of the world
iii.                  Part of our need to take care of others
e.       Write down the topic and controlling idea in the sentence: “There are several ways to reduce stress.”
    Ans: Topics = reduce stress, controlling idea = there are several ways
f.        Write down four adjective to describe the smell of a food.
Ans: (1) aromatic (2) stinking (3) smelly (4) scented
g.       Match the likely purpose to the audience:
1.       …. Friends
2.       …. Younger relative
3.       …. Instructors
4.       …. employers
a.       To show what I have learned
b.       To show my ability to do a job
c.       To teach by example
d.       To entertain
                                                                   Ans: 1. D  2. C  3. A   4. B
h.       Rewrite the following headline, so as to make it less formal and more “tabloid.” TEENAGERS BURN CAR.
                                                      Ans: Tinny blazed car
i.         What does the word “halo” suggest in the sentence: “The rock singer sang in a halo of spotlight?”
Ans: in the above example the word halo is metaphorically used and contextualized in religious sense of saint’s or prophet’s halo in their heads. It is broadly taken to holiness adoration, modesty and vast religious sense. Many of us are unfamiliar about this origin of halo. This is an example of live metaphor.
j.         What is the effect of the mime in “with beaded bubbles winking at the brim”?

1.   Answer any TWO of the following. 15X2=30
a)         Apply four levels of reading text to Feynman and Leighton’s ‘Surely You Are Joking, Mr Feynman.’
b)     Some Psychologists criticize birth-order theory as wrong and unscientific. What is your position? Do you find the birth-order theory believable? Explain.
c)         Write the significance of the ‘Parrot’ in the “The Brave Little Parrot.” Do you think the parrot is an ordinary one?

2.   Answer any FIVE of the following questions. 10X5=50
a)      “Patience, courage and selflessness are the key issues to get victory.” Explain based on the story  Yudhishtira’s Wisdom.
b)     Nepal has a rich folktale tradition. Someone must have told you an old folktale in a language other than English. Translate this tale into English.
c)        T.V. culture has been growing rapidly in Nepalese societies. Argue on pros and cons of watching T.V.  Also provide suggestion to the T.V. lover.
d)        What is your birth order in your family? Write your personality in detail.
e)          Detail a true incident that illustrates a point about  
        birth order.
f)           Why do you think that parents usually take the side
of younger child when there is dispute between
3.                  Answer any TEN of the following. 2x10=20
a)             Condense the main point of Siddicharan Shrestha’s ‘No Smoke from the Chimneys’ into a sentence.
b)        Comment the given line from a poem: “Don’t cut down the trees, brother woodcutter they are our dead mothers.”
c)             Summarize “Why Go To University?” in two sentences.
d)        Edit the following sentence:
Clare wanted Tom too join her, but he was to busy trying to decide if too plus to equal four.
e)                 Where did the Rabbi go at the time of Penitential Prayers?
f)                                        Whom does Shel Silverstein invite to sit by his fire?
g)        Rewrite the following correcting the fragments:
An oldest child may find that another oldest is not a good marriage match. An oldest may be happier with an only child. Or with a youngest child.
h)        Add phrases and dependent clauses to the given independent clauses:
There may be more resources for the children. (like attention and affection/with other adult relatives in the household…)
i)                                        Paraphrase the given quotation:
“When a sibling arrives, he tries to suppress the view of himself as a child, and he struggles to be parental.” The oldest child …
j)               What is the meaning of the words “hierarchy” and “perception.”
k)        Write and four characteristics of “oldest child” as described by Forer.
l)              What is the ‘best’ and ‘worst’ match of youngest child.

Group ‘A’
Long type answer-question                                          
Attempt any TWO questions. (15x2=30)
1. Read the following questions carefully.
Rick, about 5 foot 7 inches tall, is in good health and is a cheerful sort of guy, whom I came to know while trekking through his village in Oregon in 1997. I enjoyed staying with him and working on his diary farm where I experienced a new mode of living. Professionally speaking, for a living I am a fashion designer, so it was a new life style and entirely a new set of circumstances of me. We worked together with over 2000 cattle, and six cowboys. Rick, the master, was interesting and friendly to everyone. In the
mornings and evenings, we had to milk cows, and in the afternoons, we led the cows to the pastures in order that they could graze. We had to go across many fields and meadows to get there. Due to spending so much time together, the cattle and people almost seemed to be accustomed to one-another! The fields were a vivid green, and the sky was particularly blue, and all of us looked around in amazement at the contrast of colors. It was like being in an entirely different world. I had not planned to stay for a
whole month however, but the novelty of the situation made me forget my home and career. Rick looked after everything for me and gave me great deal of his attention and time. I found Rick different from my other friends, interested about me, caring, and highly amicable.
# Answer the following questions: 3X5=15
a. What did the writer think of his new job?
b. What was his daily duty?
c. Why did he feel that he was in a completely different world?
d. Find the words in the above passage which are closest in meaning to the following:
i. friendly                 ii. uniqueness           c. wonder
e. Summarize the given passage in three sentences.
2.Life is Sweet at Kumansenu is magical and yet realistic.” Explain.
3. Apply four levels of reading text to Serena Nanda’s “Arranging Marriage in India.”
Which “The Ant and the Grasshopper” is closer to real life, Aesop’s fable or the Maugham’s story? Why?
Group ‘B’
Short type answer-question
Attempt any FIVE of the following questions 10X5=50
4. Write the critical summary of Laxmi Prasad Devkota’s poem “The Lunatic.”
5. Can you be as good friends with someone from another culture as with someone from your own culture? Explain your answer base on the text you have learnt.
6. Describe a place that has special significance for you. Describe where it is? What the place looks like? The people who live there and feelings you have about the place.
7. Rewrite the paragraph editing for run-on sentences. One example is given for reference.
I am the middle child in my family, but I wish I were not sometimes. My brother and sisters have an easier life than I do. My older brother is very responsible he is like a third parent my sisters and I have to do what he tells us if our parents are not home. He also has more freedom than we do. He can go out on the weekends and stay out late we have to be at home by 10:00 p.m. While my brother has more freedom than I do, my sisters have an easier life. They are twins, they get a lot of attention from our parents. My parents don’t often spent time with me they spend most of their time with my sisters. Because I am not the oldest, I do not have the same power as my brother, but I do not get the extra attention either. As a result, I wish I were the oldest or the youngest child rather than the middle child.
8. Suggest proverbial meaning for the following:
a.      Lions only roar when they are hungry
b.      Empty the rubbish bin when it’s full
c.       You’ve got to eat your greens!
d.     Fasten your seat-belt before take- off
e.      The cake’s already been cut

9.Write a radio commentary for a cricket match or any other game of your interest.

Group ‘C’
Very short answer-question
Answer any TEN of the following questions. 2X10=20
10. Summarize V.S. Ramchandran’s ‘The Making of a Scientist’ in a paragraph.
11. What was Ignaz Semmelwei’s problem? (Scientific Inquiry: Invention and Test)
12. Which of the following statements express an opinion that can be supported logically:
a. There is intelligent life on other planets.
b.      The food in my country is the most delicious in the world.
c.       Computers create more employment than unemployment.
d.     Soccer is the world’s best sport
e.      The wrong died can lead to health problems
13. Choose the best cohesive device from the given for each numbered position and then rewrite the passage with necessary punctuation.
 A researcher helps explain a problem that many workers complain of. Most workers want to do their best. However, they do not work as hard as they could. 1 They feel that others receive the benefits of their hard work. 2 The researcher doesn’t see this attitude as a sign of a weak work ethic. 3 He feels the attitude would change if workers made more of the decisions that affect their work. There is a message for managers in this research.
Managers need to allow workers to express their needs. 4 They need to listen to what workers say.

14. Rewrite the given sentences adding appropriate conjunction ‘and’, ‘or’, ‘so’ or ‘but.’ 
a. Almost everyone in her neighborhood speaks her language she does not have to use English.
b. I did not have experience I tried to get a job.
15. Circle the prepositional phrases:
a. We watched with excitement as the waiter brought the pizza to our table.
b. The cheese on top of it is hot, and the crust crunches in your mouth when you bite it.
16. Write the context in the given statement:
a. Is that an ice-cream parlour?
b. Does that give you pleasure?
17. Insert four more time and sequence words or phrases; when, as soon as, __________, _________, __________ and __________
18. Write any two words/phrases each that expresses beginning and ending.
19.              What does the word ‘halo’ suggest in the sentence: The rock singer sang in a halo of spotlights.
20. Write down four adjective to describe the ‘smell of a food.’