Tuesday, March 26, 2013

Sexual/asexual?...


Cloning debate
 Cloning in biology is the process of producing similar populations of genetically identical individuals that occurs in nature when organisms such as bacteria, insects orplants reproduce asexually. Cloning inbiotechnology refers to processes used to create copies of DNA fragments (molecular cloning), cells (cell cloning), or organisms. The term also refers to the production of multiple copies of a product such as digital media or software.
The term clone is derived from κλῶνος, the Greek word for "trunk, branch", referring to the process whereby a new plant can be created from a twig. In horticulture, the spelling clon was used until the twentieth century; the final e came into use to indicate the vowel is a "long o" instead of a "short o".[1][2] Since the term entered the popular lexicon in a more general context, the spelling clone has been used exclusively.
Contents
1 Molecular cloning
2 Cellular cloning
o 2.1 Unicellular organisms
o 2.2 Cloning in stem cell research
3 Organism cloning
o 3.1 Horticultural
o 3.2 Parthenogenesis
o 3.3 Artificial cloning of organisms

Molecular cloning
Main article: Molecular cloning
Molecular cloning refers to the process of making multiple molecules. Cloning is commonly used to amplify DNA fragments containing whole genes, but it can also be used to amplify any DNA sequence such as promoters, non-coding sequences and randomly fragmented DNA. It is used in a wide array of biological experiments and practical applications ranging from genetic fingerprinting to large scale protein production. Occasionally, the term cloning is misleadingly used to refer to the identification of the chromosomal location of a gene associated with a particular phenotype of interest, such as inpositional cloning. In practice, localization of the gene to a chromosome or genomic region does not necessarily enable one to isolate or amplify the relevant genomic sequence. To amplify any DNA sequence in a living organism, that sequence must be linked to an origin of replication, which is a sequence of DNA capable of directing the propagation of itself and any linked sequence. However, a number of other features are needed and a variety of specialised cloning vectors (small piece of DNA into which a foreign DNA fragment can be inserted) exist that allow protein expression, tagging, single stranded RNA and DNA production and a host of other manipulations.
Cloning of any DNA fragment essentially involves four steps[3]
1. fragmentation - breaking apart a strand of DNA
2. ligation - gluing together pieces of DNA in a desired sequence
3. transfection - inserting the newly formed pieces of DNA into cells
4. screening/selection - selecting out the cells that were successfully transfected with the new DNA
Although these steps are invariable among cloning procedures a number of alternative routes can be selected, these are summarized as a 'cloning strategy'.
Initially, the DNA of interest needs to be isolated to provide a DNA segment of suitable size. Subsequently, a ligation procedure is used where the amplified fragment is inserted into a vector (piece of DNA). The vector (which is frequently circular) is linearised using restriction enzymes, and incubated with the fragment of interest under appropriate conditions with an enzyme called DNA ligase. Following ligation the vector with the insert of interest is transfected into cells. A number of alternative techniques are available, such as chemical sensitivation of cells, electroporation, optical injection and biolistics. Finally, the transfected cells are cultured. As the aforementioned procedures are of particularly low efficiency, there is a need to identify the cells that have been successfully transfected with the vector construct containing the desired insertion sequence in the required orientation. Modern cloning vectors include selectable antibiotic resistance markers, which allow only cells in which the vector has been transfected, to grow. Additionally, the cloning vectors may contain colour selection markers, which provide blue/white screening (??-factor complementation) on X-gal medium. Nevertheless, these selection steps do not absolutely guarantee that the DNA insert is present in the cells obtained. Further investigation of the resulting colonies must be required to confirm that cloning was successful. This may be accomplished by means of PCR, restriction fragment analysis and/or DNA sequencing.
Cellular cloning
Unicellular organisms
Cloning cell-line colonies using cloning rings
Cloning a cell means to derive a population of cells from a single cell. In the case of unicellular organisms such as bacteria and yeast, this process is remarkably simple and essentially only requires the inoculation of the appropriate medium. However, in the case of cell cultures from multi-cellular organisms, cell cloning is an arduous task as these cells will not readily grow in standard media.
A useful tissue culture technique used to clone distinct lineages of cell lines involves the use of cloning rings(cylinders).[4] According to this technique, a single-cell suspension of cells that have been exposed to a mutagenic agent or drug used to drive selection is plated at high dilution to create isolated colonies; each arising from a single and potentially clonal distinct cell. At an early growth stage when colonies consist of only a few of cells, sterile polystyrene rings (cloning rings), which have been dipped in grease are placed over an individual colony and a small amount oftrypsin is added. Cloned cells are collected from inside the ring and transferred to a new vessel for further growth.
Cloning in stem cell research
Main article: Somatic cell nuclear transfer
Somatic cell nuclear transfer, known as SCNT, can also be used to create embryos for research or therapeutic purposes. The most likely purpose for this is to produce embryos for use in stem cell research. This process is also called "research cloning" or "therapeutic cloning." The goal is not to create cloned human beings (called "reproductive cloning"), but rather to harvest stem cells that can be used to study human development and to potentially treat disease. While a clonal human blastocyst has been created, stem cell lines are yet to be isolated from a clonal source.[5]
Organism cloning
Further information: Asexual reproduction
Organism cloning (also called reproductive cloning) refers to the procedure of creating a new multicellular organism, genetically identical to another. In essence this form of cloning is an asexual method of reproduction, where fertilization or inter-gamete contact does not take place. Asexual reproduction is a naturally occurring phenomenon in many species, including most plants (seevegetative reproduction) and some insects. Scientists have made some major achievements with cloning, including the asexual reproduction of sheep and cows. There is a lot of ethical debate over whether or not cloning should be used. However, cloning, or asexual propagation,[6] has been common practice in the horticultural world for hundreds of years.
Horticultural
The term clone is used in horticulture to mean all descendants of a single plant, produced byvegetative reproduction or apomixis. Many horticultural plant cultivars are clones, having been derived from a single individual, multiplied by some process other than sexual reproduction. As an example, some European cultivars of grapes represent clones that have been propagated for over two millennia. Other examples are potato and banana. Grafting can be regarded as cloning, since all the shoots and branches coming from the graft are genetically a clone of a single individual, but this particular kind of cloning has not come under ethical scrutiny and is generally treated as an entirely different kind of operation.
Many trees, shrubs, vines, ferns and other herbaceous perennials form clonal colonies. Parts of a large clonal colony often become detached from the parent, termed fragmentation, to form separate individuals. Some plants also form seeds is asexually, termed apomixis, e.g. dandelion.
Parthenogenesis
Clonal derivation exists in nature in some animal species and is referred to as parthenogenesis(reproduction of an organism by itself without a mate). This is an asexual form of reproduction that is only found in females of some insects, crustaceans and lizards. The growth and development occurs without fertilization by a male. In plants, parthenogenesis means the development of an embryo from an unfertilized egg cell, and is a component process of apomixis. In species that use the XY sex-determination system, the offspring will always be female. An example is the "Little Fire Ant" (Wasmannia auropunctata), which is native to Central and South America but has spread throughout many tropical environments.
Artificial cloning of organisms
Artificial cloning of organisms may also be called reproductive cloning.
Methods
Reproductive cloning generally uses "somatic cell nuclear transfer" (SCNT) to create animals that are genetically identical. This process entails the transfer of a nucleus from a donor adult cell (somatic cell) to an egg that has no nucleus. If the egg begins to divide normally it is transferred into the uterus of the surrogate mother. Such clones are not strictly identical since the somatic cells may contain mutations in their nuclear DNA. Additionally, the mitochondria in the cytoplasm also contains DNA and during SCNT this DNA is wholly from the donor egg, thus the mitochondrial genome is not the same as that of the nucleus donor cell from which it was produced. This may have important implications for cross-species nuclear transfer in which nuclear-mitochondrial incompatibilities may lead to death.
Artificial embryo splitting or embryo twinning may also be used as a method of cloning, where anembryo is split in the maturation before embryo transfer. It is optimally performed at the 6- to 8-cell stage, where it can be used as an expansion of IVF to increase the number of available embryos.[7] If both embryos are successful, it gives rise to monozygotic (identical) twins.
Dolly the Sheep

Mainarticle: DollytheSheep

Dolly, a Finn-Dorset ewe, was the first mammal to have been successfully cloned from an adult cell. She was cloned at the Roslin Institute in Scotland and lived there from her birth in 1996 until her death in 2003 when she was six. Her stuffed remains were placed at Edinburgh's Royal Museum, part of the National Museums of Scotland.[8]
Dolly was publicly significant because the effort showed that the genetic material from a specific adult cell, programmed to express only a distinct subset of its genes, can be reprogrammed to grow an entirely new organism. Before this demonstration, it had been shown by John Gurdon that nuclei from differentiated cells could give rise to an entire organism after transplantation into an enucleated egg.[9] However, this concept was not yet demonstrated in a mamallian system.
Cloning Dolly the sheep had a low success rate per fertilized egg; she was born after 237 eggs were used to create 29 embryos, which only produced three lambs at birth, only one of which lived. Seventy calves have been created and one third of them died young; Prometea took 277 attempts. Notably, although the first clones were frogs, no adult cloned frog has yet been produced from a somatic adult nucleus donor cell.
There were early claims that Dolly the Sheep had pathologies resembling accelerated aging. Scientists speculated that Dolly's death in 2003 was related to the shortening of telomeres, DNA-protein complexes that protect the end of linear chromosomes. However, other researchers, includingIan Wilmut who led the team that successfully cloned Dolly, argue that Dolly's early death due to respiratory infection was unrelated to deficiencies with the cloning process.
Water Buffalo
On September 15, 2007, the Philippines announced its development of Southeast Asia’s first clonedwater buffalo. The Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development (PCARRD), under the Department of Science and Technology in Los Baños, Lagunaapproved this project. [10]
Species cloned
Further information: List of animals that have been cloned
The modern cloning techniques involving nuclear transfer have been successfully performed on several species. Landmark experiments[clarification needed] in chronological order:
Tadpole: (1952) Many scientists questioned whether cloning had actually occurred and unpublished experiments by other labs were not able to reproduce the reported results.[citation needed]
Carp: (1963) In China, embryologist Tong Dizhou produced the world's first cloned fish by inserting the DNA from a cell of a male carp into an egg from a female carp. He published the findings in a Chinese science journal.[11]
Mice: (1986) A mouse was the first mammal successfully cloned from an early embryonic cell.Soviet scientists Chaylakhyan, Veprencev, Sviridova, and Nikitin had the mouse "Masha" cloned. Research was published in the magazine "Biofizika" volume ХХХII, issue 5 of 1987.[clarification needed][12]
Sheep: (1996) From early embryonic cells by Steen Willadsen. Megan and Morag[13] cloned from differentiated embryonic cells in June 1995 and Dolly the sheep from a somatic cell in 1997.[14]
Rhesus Monkey: Tetra (January 2000) from embryo splitting[15][clarification needed][16]
Gaur: (2001) was the first endangered species cloned.[17]
Cattle: Alpha and Beta (males, 2001) and (2005) Brazil[18]
Cat: CopyCat "CC" (female, late 2001), Little Nicky, 2004, was the first cat cloned for commercial reasons[19]
Dog: Snuppy, a male Afghan hound was the first cloned dog (2005).[20]
Rat: Ralph, the first cloned rat (2003)[21]
Mule: Idaho Gem, a john mule born 4 May 2003, was the first horse-family clone.[22]
Horse: Prometea, a Haflinger female born 28 May 2003, was the first horse clone.[23]
Water Buffalo: Samrupa was the first cloned water buffalo. It was born on February 6, 2009, atIndia's Karnal National Diary Research Institute but died five days later due to lung infection.[24]
Camel: (2009) Injaz, is the first cloned camel.[25]
Human cloning
Main article: Human cloning
Human cloning is the creation of a genetically identical copy of an existing or previously existinghuman. The term is generally used to refer to artificial human cloning; human clones in the form ofidentical twins are commonplace, with their cloning occurring during the natural process of reproduction. There are two commonly discussed types of human cloning: therapeutic cloning and reproductive cloning. Therapeutic cloning involves cloning adult cells for use in medicine and is an active area of research. Reproductive cloning would involve making cloned humans. A third type of cloning called replacement cloning is a theoretical possibility, and would be a combination of therapeutic and reproductive cloning. Replacement cloning would entail the replacement of an extensively damaged, failed, or failing body through cloning followed by whole or partial brain transplant.
The various forms of human cloning are controversial.[26] There have been numerous demands for all progress in the human cloning field to be halted. Most scientific, governmental and religious organizations oppose reproductive cloning. The American Association for the Advancement of Science(AAAS) and other scientific organizations have made public statements suggesting that human reproductive cloning be banned until safety issues are resolved.[27] Serious ethical concerns have been raised by the future possibility of harvesting organs from clones.[citation needed] Some people have considered the idea of growing organs separately from a human organism - in doing this, a new organ supply could be established without the moral implications of harvesting them from humans. Research is also being done on the idea of growing organs that are biologically acceptable to the human body inside of other organisms, such as pigs or cows, then transplanting them to humans, a form ofxenotransplantation.
The first hybrid human clone was created in November 1998, by American Cell Technologies.[28] It was created from a man's leg cell, and a cow's egg whose DNA was removed. It was destroyed after 12 days. Since a normal embryo implants at 14 days, Dr Robert Lanza, ACT's director of tissue engineering, told the Daily Mail newspaper that the embryo could not be seen as a person before 14 days. While making an embryo, which may have resulted in a complete human had it been allowed to come to term, according to ACT: "[ACT's] aim was 'therapeutic cloning' not 'reproductive cloning'"
On January, 2008, Wood and Andrew French, Stemagen's chief scientific officer in California, announced that they successfully created the first 5 mature human embryos using DNA from adult skin cells, aiming to provide a source of viable embryonic stem cells. Dr. Samuel Wood and a colleague donated skin cells, and DNA from those cells was transferred to human eggs. It is not clear if the embryos produced would have been capable of further development, but Dr. Wood stated that if that were possible, using the technology for reproductive cloning would be both unethical and illegal. The 5 cloned embryos, created in Stemagen Corporation lab, in La Jolla, were destroyed.[29]
Ethical issues of cloning
Main article: Ethics of cloning
Because of recent technological advancements, the cloning of animals (and potentially humans) has been an issue. The Catholic Church and many religious organizations oppose all forms of cloning,[citation needed] on the grounds that life begins at conception. Judaism does not equate life with conception and,[citation needed] though some question the wisdom of cloning, Orthodox rabbis generally find no firm reason in Jewish law and ethics to object to cloning.[citation needed] From the standpoint of classical liberalism, concerns also exist regarding the protection of the identity of the individual and the right to protect one's genetic identity.
Gregory Stock is a scientist and outspoken critic against restrictions on cloning research.[30]Bioethicist Gregory Pence also attacks the idea of criminalizing attempts to clone humans.[citation needed]
The social implications of an artificial human production scheme were famously explored in Aldous Huxley's novel Brave New World.
On December 28, 2006, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the consumption of meat and other products from cloned animals.[31] Cloned-animal products were said to be virtually indistinguishable from the non-cloned animals. Furthermore, companies would not be required to provide labels informing the consumer that the meat comes from a cloned animal.[32]
Critics have raised objections to the FDA's approval of cloned-animal products for human consumption, arguing that the FDA's research was inadequate, inappropriately limited, and of questionable scientific validity.[33][34][35] Several consumer-advocate groups are working to encourage a tracking program that would allow consumers to become more aware of cloned-animal products within their food.[36]
Joseph Mendelson, legal director of the Center for Food Safety, said that cloned food still should be labeled since safety and ethical issues about it remain questionable.
Carol Tucker Foreman, director of food policy at the Consumer Federation of America, stated that FDA does not consider the fact that the results of some studies revealed that cloned animals have increased rates of mortality and deformity at birth.
Cloning extinct and endangered species
Cloning, or more precisely, the reconstruction of functional DNA from extinct species has, for decades, been a dream of some scientists. The possible implications of this were dramatized in the best-selling novel by Michael Crichton and high budget Hollywood thriller Jurassic Park. In real life, one of the most anticipated targets for cloning was once the Woolly Mammoth, but attempts to extract DNA from frozen mammoths have been unsuccessful, though a joint Russo-Japanese team is currently working toward this goal.[37]
In 2001, a cow named Bessie gave birth to a cloned Asian gaur, an endangered species, but the calf died after two days. In 2003, a banteng was successfully cloned, followed by three African wildcats from a thawed frozen embryo. These successes provided hope that similar techniques (using surrogate mothers of another species) might be used to clone extinct species. Anticipating this possibility, tissue samples from the last bucardo (Pyrenean Ibex) were frozen in liquid nitrogen immediately after it died in 2000. Researchers are also considering cloning endangered species such as the giant panda, ocelot, and cheetah. The "Frozen Zoo" at the San Diego Zoo now stores frozen tissue from the world's rarest and most endangered species.[38][39]
In 2002, geneticists at the Australian Museum announced that they had replicated DNA of theThylacine (Tasmanian Tiger), extinct about 65 years previous, using polymerase chain reaction.[40]However, on February 15, 2005 the museum announced that it was stopping the project after tests showed the specimens' DNA had been too badly degraded by the (ethanol) preservative. On 15 May 2005 it was announced that the Thylacine project would be revived, with new participation from researchers in New South Wales and Victoria.
In January 2009, for the first time, an extinct animal, the Pyrenean ibex mentioned above was cloned, at the Centre of Food Technology and Research of Aragon, using the preserved DNA of the skin samples from 2001 and domestic goat egg-cells. (The ibex died shortly after birth due to physical defects in its lungs.) [41] One of the continuing obstacles in the attempt to clone extinct species is the need for nearly perfect DNA. Cloning from a single specimen could not create a viable breeding population in sexually reproducing animals. Furthermore, even if males and females were to be cloned, the question would remain open whether they would be viable at all in the absence of parents that could teach or show them their natural behavior.
Cloning endangered species is a highly ideological issue. Many conservation biologists andenvironmentalists vehemently oppose cloning endangered species — mainly because they think it may deter donations to help preserve natural habitat and wild animal populations. The "rule-of-thumb" in animal conservation is that, if it is still feasible to conserve habitat and viable wild populations, breeding in captivity should not be undertaken in isolation.
In a 2006 review, David Ehrenfeld concluded that cloning in animal conservation is an experimental technology that, at its state in 2006, could not be expected to work except by pure chance and utterly failed a cost-benefit analysis.[42] Furthermore, he said, it is likely to siphon funds from established and working projects and does not address any of the issues underlying animal extinction (such as habitat destruction, hunting or other overexploitation, and an impoverished gene pool). While cloning technologies are well-established and used on a regular basis in plant conservation, care must be taken to ensure genetic diversity. He concluded:
Vertebrate cloning poses little risk to the environment, but it can consume scarce conservation resources, and its chances of success in preserving species seem poor. To date, the conservation benefits of transgenics and vertebrate cloning remain entirely theoretical, but many of the risks are known and documented. Conservation biologists should devote their research and energies to the established methods of conservation, none of which require transgenics or vertebrate cloning.[42]
Cloning: The process of making a clone, a genetically identical copy. Cloning can refer to the technique of producing a genetically identical copy of an organism by replacing the nucleus of an unfertilized ovum with the nucleus of a body cell from the organism.
The first adult mammal cloned was Dolly the Sheep in 1997.
clone
1. A cell, group of cells, or organism that is descended from and genetically identical to a single common ancestor, such as a bacterial colony whose members arose from a single original cell.
2. An organism descended asexually from a single ancestor, such as a plant produced by layering or a polyp produced by budding.
3. A DNA sequence, such as a gene, that is transferred from one organism to another and replicated by genetic engineering techniques.
4. One that copies or closely resembles another, as in appearance or function: "filled with business-school clones in gray and blue suits" (Michael M. Thomas).
v. cloned, clon•ing, clones
1. To make multiple identical copies of (a DNA sequence). 2. To create or propagate (an organism) from a clone cell: clone a sheep. 3. To reproduce or propagate asexually: clone a plant variety.
4. To produce a copy of; imitate closely: "The look has been cloned into cliché"(Cathleen McGuigan).
clon al (kl  n l) adj.         clon al•ly adv.             clon er n.

Cloning is the process of creating an identical copy of an original. A clone in the biological sense, therefore, is a multi-cellular organismthat is genetically identical to another living organism. Sometimes this can refer to "natural" clones made either when an organismreproduces asexually or when two genetically identical individuals are produced by accident (as with identical twins), but in common parlance the clone is an identical copy by some conscious design. Also see clone (genetics).
The term clone is derived from κλων, the Greek word for "twig". In horticulture, the spelling clon was used until the twentieth century; the final e came into use to indicate the vowel is a "long o" instead of a "short o". Since the term entered the popular lexicon in a more general context, the spelling clone has been used exclusively.
In biology, cloning is used in two contexts: cloning a gene, or cloning an organism. Cloning a gene means to extract a gene from one organism (for example by PCR) and insert it into a second organism (usually via a vector), where it can be used and studied. Cloning a gene sometimes can refer to success in identifying a gene associated with some phenotype. For example, when biologists say that the gene for disease X has been cloned, they mean that the gene's location and DNA sequence has been identified, although the ability to specifically copy the physical DNA is a side-effect of its identification.
Cloning an organism means to create a new organism with the same genetic information as an existing one. In a modern context, this can involve somatic cell nuclear transfer in which the nucleus is removed from an egg cell and replaced with a nucleus extracted from a cell of the organism to be cloned (currently, both the egg cell and its transplanted nucleus must be from the same species). As the nucleus contains (almost) all of the genetic information of a lifeform, the "host" egg cell will develop into an organism genetically identical to the nucleus "donor". Mitochondrial DNA, which is not transferred by this process, is generally ignored as its effects on organisms are thought to be relatively minor.
The term clone is used in horticulture to mean all descendants of a single plant, produced by vegetative reproduction. Many horticultural varieties of plants are clones, having been derived from a single individual, multiplied by some process other than sexual reproduction. As an example, some European varieties of grapes represent clones that have been propagated for over two millennia. This is a genuine example of cloning in the broader biological sense, as it creates genetically identical organisms by biological means, but this particular kind of cloning has not come under ethical scrutiny and is generally treated as an entirely different kind of operation.
Therapeutic cloning is the procedure for creating stem cells genetically compatible with the patient.

The modern cloning techniques involving nuclear transfers have been successfully performed on several species: (in chronological order) frogs: (1962) Unsuccessful
carp: (1963) ** Successfully cloned ** sheep: (1996) Dolly
rhesus monkey: Tetra (female, January 2000) pig: 5 Scottish PPL piglets (March 2000), Xena (female, August 2000) gaur: Noah (male, January 2001)
cattle: Alpha and Beta (males, 2001) cat: CopyCat "CC" (female, late 2001), Little Nicky, 2004, was the first cat cloned for commercial reasons mice: over a dozen as of 2002
rabbit: (March-April, 2003) in France and North Korea independently. Human-rabbit hybrid in China (August, 2003)
mule: Idaho Gem (male, May 2003) and Utah Pioneer (male, June 2003)
deer: Dewey (2003) horse: Prometea (female, 2003)
rat: Ralph (male, 2003) fruit flies (2004)
Surprisingly, an Asian scientist, embryologist Tong Dizhou, cloned a fish in 1963, 33 years before Dolly the sheep. Apparently, he published the findings in an obscure Chinese science journal, which was never translated into English. [1]
Health aspects
However, the success rate has been very low: Dolly was born after 276 failed attempts; 70 calves have been created from 9,000 attempts and one third of them died young; Prometea took 328 attempts. With certain species such as dogs no successful clones have been created at all.
A surprising development to do with aging resulted from finds that Dolly was apparently born old; she developed arthritis at age six. Aging of this type is thought to be due to telomeres, regions at the tips of chromosomes which prevent genetic threads fraying every time a cell divides. Over time telomeres get worn down until cell-division is no longer possible - this is thought to be a cause of aging. However, when researchers cloned cows they appeared to be younger than they should be. Analysis of the cow's telomeres showed they had not only been 'reset' to birth-length, but they were actually longer - suggesting these clones would live longer life spans than normal cows (but many have died young after excessive growth). Researchers think that this could eventually be developed to reverse aging in humans.
Human cloning
Main article: Human cloning
Human cloning is a subject of great controversy regarding its ethical and practical consequences. Many people believe that attempts to perform human reproductive cloning would be unethical, but some scientists have publicly announced their intention to do so. A number of groups have made claims that they are working on or have already produced human clones. None of these claims has been independently confirmed. Meanwhile therapeutic cloning appears to be a promising technology for combating many deadly diseases. It should be noted that natural clones occur - identical twins.
Cloning extinct species
Cloning , or more precisely, the reconstruction of functional DNA from extinct species has, for decades, been a dream of some scientists. The possible implications of this were dramatized in the novel by Michael Creighton and high budget Hollywood thriller, called "Jurassic Park". In real life, one of the most anticipated targets for cloning was once the Woolly mammoth, but attempts to extract DNA from frozen mammoths have been unsuccessful.
In 2000, a cow named Bessie gave birth to a cloned Asian guar, an endangered species; this provided hope that similar techniques (using surrogate mothers of another species) might be used to clone extinct species; in anticipation of this possibility, the last bucardo, a Spanish mountain goat, was frozen immediately after it died (from illness after birth). Researchers are also considering cloning endangered species such as the giant panda, ocelot, and cheetah[2].In 2002, geneticists at the Australian Museum announced that they had replicated DNA of the Thylacine (Tasmanian Tiger), extinct about 65 years previous, using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)[3].
One of the continuing obstacles in the attempt to clone extinct species is the need for nearly perfect DNA. Furthermore, if animals were cloned from one individual, the significant problem of lack of genetic diversity would still remain in the attempt to establish a breeding population.
Commercial cloning
While the promise cloning extinct species is an old justification for developing cloning, there are a lot of other applications. One is cloningcattle, horses and other domestic animals. This appears to be a much faster and more efficient way to propagate good genes (as chosen by humans) than traditional breeding.
Another application that has recently became feasible is cloning pets. Little Nicky was the first pet cloned (by the Genetic Savings and Clone company) after the death of the original. The procedure is still very expensive and the demand is in its infancy, though. But there is potential demand in many unexpected areas. For example, some Hollywood movies studios stored genetic samples of some of their "animal actors" to have the possibility of growing a clone that could replace then dead animal in a future sequel [4].
To those against it, cloning presents as much a moral problem as a technical problem. For them, cloning is an affront to religious sensibilities; it seems like "playing God," and interfering with the natural process. There are, of course, more logical objections, regarding susceptibility to disease, expense, and diversity. Others are worried about the abuses of cloning. Cloning appears to be a powerful force that can be exploited to produce horrendous results. Their basic objections to cloning research are outlined here.
Cloning may reduce genetic variability, Producing many clones runs the risk of creating a population that is entirely the same. This population would be susceptible to the same diseases, and one disease could devastate the entire population. One can easily picture humans being wiped out be a single virus, however, less drastic, but more probable events could occur from a lack of genetic diversity. For example, if a large percentage of an nation's cattle are identical clones, a virus, such as a particular strain of mad cow disease, could effect the entire population. The result could be catastrophic food shortages in that nation.
Cloning may cause people to settle for the best existing animals, not allowing for improvement of the species. In this way, cloning could potentially interfere with natural evolution.
Cloning is currently an expensive process. Cloning requires large amounts of money and biological expertise. Ian Wilmut and his associates required 277 tries before producing Dolly. A new cloning technique has recently been developed which is far more reliable. However, even this technique has 2-3% success rate.
There is a risk of disease transfer between transgenic animals and the animal from which the transgenes were derived. If an animal producing drugs in its milk becomes infected by a virus, the animal may transmit the virus to a patient using the drug.
Any research into human cloning would eventually need to be tested on human. The ability to clone humans may lead to the genetic tailoring of offspring. The heart of the cloning debate is concerned with the genetic manipulation of a human embryo before it begins development. It is conceivable that scientists could alter a baby's genetic code to give the individual a certain color of eyes or genetic resistance to certain diseases. This is viewed as inappropriate tampering with "Mother Nature" by many ethicists.
Because clones are derived from an existing adult cell, it has older genes. Will the clone's life expectancy be shorter because of this? Despite this concern, so far, all clones have appeared to be perfectly normal creatures.
A "genetic screening test" could be used to eliminate zygotes of a particular gender, without requiring a later abortion.
Cloning might be used to create a "perfect human," or one with above normal strength and sub-normal intelligence, a genetic underclass. Also, if cloning is perfected in humans, there would be no genetic need for men.
Cloning might have a detrimental effect on familial relationships. A child born from an adult DNA cloning of his father could be considered a delayed identical twin of one of his parents. It is unknown as to how a human might react if he or she knew he or she was an exact duplicate of an older individual.
Supporters of cloning feel that with the careful continuation of research, the technological benefits of cloning clearly outweigh the possible social consequences. In their minds, final products of cloning, like farm animals, and laboratory mice will not be the most important achievement. The applications of cloning they envision are not nightmarish and inhumane, but will improve the overall quality of science and life. Cloning will help to produce discoveries that will effect the study of genetics, cell development, human growth, and obstetrics. Human cloning is not the issue, it is merely a threat to the continuation of cloning research. Their arguments for such research are displayed here.
Cloning might produce a greater understanding of the cause of miscarriages, which might lead to a treatment to prevent spontaneous abortions. This would help women who can't bring a fetus to term. It might lead to an understanding of the way a morula (mass of cells developed from a blastula) attaches itself to the uterine wall. This might generate new and successful contraceptives.
Cloning experiments may add to the understanding of genetics and lead to the creation of animal organs that an be easily accepted by humans. This would supply limitless organs to those in need. The growth of the human morula is similar to the growth at which cancer cells propagate. If information derived from cloning research allows scientists to stop the division of the human ovum, a technique for terminating cancer may be found.
Cloning could also be used for parents who risk passing a defect to a child. A fertilized ovum could be cloned, and the duplicate tested for disease and disorder. If the clone was free from defects, then other would be as well. The latter could be implanted in the womb.
Damage to the nervous system could treated through cloning. Damaged adult nerve tissue does not regenerate on its own. However, stem cells might be able to repair the damaged tissue. Because of the large number of cells required, human embryo cloning would be required.
In in-vitro fertilization, a doctor often implants many fertilized ova into a woman's uterus and counts on one resulting in pregnancy. However, some women can only supply one egg. Through cloning, that egg could be divided into eight zygotes for implanting. The chances of pregnancy would be much greater.
Cloning would allow a women to have one set of identical twins instead of going through two pregnancies. The women may not want to disrupt her career, or would prefer to only have one pregnancy. With cloning it would be assured that they would be identical.
Cloning could provide spare parts. Fertilized ova could be cloned into several zygotes, one would be implanted and the others would be frozen for future use. In the event the child required a transplant, another zygote could be implanted, matured, and eventually contribute to the transplant. Some believe that if a parent wanted to produce talents in a child similar to his own, cloning using DNA from the cell of the adult may produce a child with the same traits. Many are skeptical about this possibility. In the debate over cloning, there are those that feel that the benefits and advances gained from cloning outweigh any social dilemmas, and there are those feel that cloning is wrong on a fundamental moral level and would produce scientific and social problems. In weighing in on these views, major organizations draw on numerous sources including religious law, party philosophy and scientific concern. Some object to cloning on a purely ethical level, while others favor cloning solely for the scientific advances it will produce. These are the stances of some prominent religious, scientific, and ethical groups.
The Catholic Church: John Paul II released a statement condemning the cloning of all life forms. The
Vatican also issued a statement that only condemned human cloning, but did not address other forms.
Sunni Islam: Abdelmo’ti Bayyumi, theologian from Al-Azhar University declared it is forbidden to clone animals under Islamic law. However, some Muslims have testified to the National Bioethics Advisory Committee that they feel cloning might be allowable if it produced ways to counteract infertility.
Judaism: The Chief Rabbi of Israel, Meir Law, stated that the cloning of any creature is against Jewish law. However, some believe cloning in order to produce better food and medication would be allowable in Jewish tradition.
Biotechnology Industry Organization: Carl Felbaum, president- "One of the prospects should not be, perhaps should never be, the extension of this technique to human beings... Now that it may be possible we would say it should be prohibited if necessary by law."
Libertarian Party: Steve Dasch, chairman- "Politicians should not have veto power over the creation of new life - especially human life...That’s why the Libertarian Party supports reproductive freedom of choice for Americans-whether they choose to reproduce using the traditional method, or artificial insemination, or in-vitro fertilization, or cloning... if cloning research is banned, millions of people could suffer."
Foundation of Economic Trends: Jeremy Rifkin, president- Proposing a world-wide ban on cloning, he says it should carry a penalty "on par with rape, child abuse, and murder."
World Council of Churches: Martin Robra, executive secretary- the council would prefer a moratorium until all ethical questions can be resolved.
Church of England Board of Social Responsibility: Mary Seller- "The antics of a few cranks and Hitler types" should not impede cloning research. "Cloning. like all science, must be used responsibly. Cloning humans is not desirable. But cloning sheep has its uses."
Clones Rights United Front: Randolfe Wicker, founder- "We’re fighting for research, and we’re defending people’s reproductive rights... I realize my clone would be my identical twin, and my identical twin has a right to be born."
Stephen Grebe: professor of biology, American University- "We’re going to be facing this issue with humans... With that possibility open, I’m concerned without safeguards that this will become a reality. It may very well already be."
Cloning Debate
 Terça, 03 Fevereiro 2009 08:58 |Class Forum: Cloning
Ana Bastos, 16: One of the issues that have caused more division in today’s society is cloning. There are various views but none is completely correct or perfect.
In my opinion, cloning has two faces, each with completely different characteristics.
For example, in some cases it is stated by the scientific community that cloning will help cure  cancer. So… why not open the doors to cloning? It would be very important for medical science advances.
However, look at cloning from an ethical and moral viewpoint: the cloning of human embryos is truly against  ethics and nobody knows what its results would be! Moreover, we humans, haven’t the right to clone a baby for the simple reason that it’s necessary for the  advance of science and to find affective medical  treatments.
Finally, I would say that cloning can be used for terrorist purposes and if it can help discover the cure for diseases, it can also create new diseases!
Because of these last  devastating factors, I’m against  human cloning.
João Ferreira, 17: I think cloning expresses the scientific revolution we are living nowadays. Times ago, who would say that it would be possible to create a copy of a potato or of a sheep with exactly the same characteristics?
It’s, no doubt, an authentic new engineering  “play” that we can manipulate genetically organisms, turning them into what we want.
Cloning, like every recently discovery, must be very carefully studied before its use becomes unsafe. It wouldn’t be nice to see all world with all the people looking the same; the same haircuts, the same face expressions, etc. Cloning can bring us many good things as bad results. On the one hand there are many diseases that could be cured with the replacement  ill organs and cloning would be the answer. Almost-extinct species could be replaced through cloning in their natural habitat. On the other hand  clones could become smarter than men and start a new social revolution. They could even control us, if they got to know how to do it. There  are many bad people who could use cloning to create armies, assassins, etc.
To conclude, I just think that cloning is fascinating. However, this should be a technique to be only on the hands of those who really know its risks and know how to control it.
Tânia Nogueira,16:  I do not agree with cloning. Firstly  because nature does not allow that, then it goes against the law of nature. Secondly because  the cloned person or even the clone itself may have consequences with this action.
Miriam Garrett,17 , If cloning would be well succeed, it could help in the advance of science and, as a consequence, it would help children with serious diseases.
However, I am against cloning because clones would not be treated as human beings, but as scientific projects. Besides, from the religious point of view, if God wanted us to live forever, he would made us immortal.
Ricardo Dias,16, Nowadays cloning is a subject that is well accepted by some people, but at the same time is much questionable by the majority f people in the world.
However in my opinion cloning has good and bad things.
Firstly cloned cells can be used to increase the production of food plants and to increase livestock and thus reduce famine. More cloned cells can be used to help infertile people have babies as well as for transplants.
On the other hand cloning has been a subject of great controversy for several reasons: so far, the majority of clones have been  born with deformities, have died  before birth or younger than normal  animals, clones could be used to fight in wars, for slave labour or slave trade.
In short, I think that cloning would bring advantages, but it would also bring several serious problems to the world.
Tiago Matos,17: I don’t know very well but I think that it would be such a big problem to have one or two more of me. I know that if I had a clone and people didn’t know about it, he could make my friends mad about me and some other wrong things and that would bring me  big troubles.
I may understand people who like the idea of having a clone, but individuality is an amazing thing. I like being unique and if I had a clone that wouldn’t be possible.
Márcia Costa,16: I think that cloning will be very useful in our life because we will be able to clone organs and use them for transplant or clone cells to cure some diseases that today still with no cure. So we will improve the life quality of patients.
Don't I also understand that this theme have also problems principally ethical problems but when I talk about cloning and don't mean to cloning completely an human, but just some organs if that person really need. People cannot think to clone a person to replace her; people must have the idea that a clone is some other life just genetically identical to his cells-donor. I think just the idea of somebody have a person exactly like her is ridiculous because normally everyone want to be recognize by the society.
For me is this: we just need clone for medical questions but there are always people who have others crazies' ideas and this people could be very dangerous.
Diogo Baig,16: have always been for the advance of technology, and I have never been afraid of it – that’s why I have chosen this school area.
But in this case, I have a different opinion. I believe that cloning human beings is an area that we shouldn’t explore, because we are talking about human life which it’s not something to play with.
We don’t know the risks and the consequences of cloning human beings, because it’s something that has was never been experienced before. Besides, it is anti-nature – and I am not talking  from the religious point. It's just my opinion as a human being.
About the cloning of organs, I think that’s a try to avoid and change the natural law of life, which is born to live and die.We should be careful about it, this is serious - just because we can do something, that doesn't mean that we should.Sara Tavares,16: Genetic engineering and genetic modification are the process of handling  the genes in an organism, generally out of the normal reproductive process.
Many opponents to genetic engineering believe that the growing use of GMO in great plantations can led biotechnical companies to gain excessive power on the production of food, and on the farmers.
Genetic modification alters the genes and, consequently, the characteristics of the individual. It is possible, for example, to modify genetically strawberries so that they can remain fresh during more time.
When a plant is modified genetically, a strange gene is introduced in the genes of the plant itself. It can  be, for example, a gene of a resistant bacterium to the pesticide. As result, the genetically modified plant inherits the characteristics contained in the genetic code transplanted, becoming also able to support the pesticides.
In  traditional agriculture  genes are  transferred from a plant to another one. This is also the case in the genetic modification - but the way of doing it is very different. Genetic modification is a more precise technique, in which it is possible to transfer exactly  the wanted characteristics. In the traditional process, it is not possible to avoid the eventuality of transferring  other characteristics and the characteristics can be exchanged only between identical or very similar sorts of plants. In the genetic modification, the characteristics can be transferred from any  sort of organism to a very different  one.

Science has come along way since the dawn of our era. The break through s and discoveries in the modern medical and technical fields are amazing. Computers are another advance in modern science and technology. People use computers to type papers, play games, and use the internet among many other things. Computers can also be used for science. Formulas that may fail or be very expensive if tried physically, can easily be tested using a computer. After successfully cloning a sheep, man now feels the possibilities for genetic engineering are endless. After creating a living, breathing creature, what is to prevent scientists from creating a human? Greed, religion, and power are the biggest negatives against man playing god.
Money is said to be the root of all evil, a statement that could very well be proven correct if the genetic cloning of a human being were allowed. The first company to develop the correct technology to properly clone and grow a human would have exclusive rights to it. The price of making a clone would be determined solely by that company. The balance of power would be entirely in the favor of the company that made human cloning possible, and that spells chaos for the rest of the world. Consumers wishing to use or purchase the technology would have to abide by every rule and restriction made by the parent company. Too much power in one individual s hands is never a good thing, and that scenario seems very apparent in this situation. Power corrupts people in a way that is inexplicable, a good example would be an Olympian winning a gold metal in his or her respective sport. They suddenly realize that they are better than all the other competition and that they are indeed the best in the world. Then of course they will want to show of their achievements by gloating and bragging about what they ve done and trying to show people that they could very well and easily do it again. The problem with this is that when they try to accomplish their feat again, they are unable to, and the world is disappointed and in trouble at the same time. All the money that was invested in the software and technology will be lost and wasted. Human cloning could be a one hit wonder .
Many religions believe that god put mankind on the earth. Genetic engineering challenges the beliefs of much of the world, in that man is playing the role of god by creating living, breathing organisms. A sheep has already been created by using the dna of a living sheep. One of the only things standing in science s way from cloning a human is religion. Most religions believe that god made things the way they were meant to be according to that particular religion, but no matter what the belief of that religion says, human cloning would go against it. Judaism believes that god created everything, and that god is everything, no where does it state that man has the power to take the genetic reigns and build a carbon based form of life. Scientists however, feel that the world is relatively up for grabs, and the person able to unlock the code, holds the key to being a god.
Human cloning could easily become the next big thing since computers. The person or people that come up with the technology that makes human cloning possible own and have all the rights to the technology; the power belongs solely to that person or group of people. Power corrupts the mind. The corruption that is waiting to take place in the underworld of human cloning is huge. Regulations need to be made well before the software goes public. The government needs to know what kind of regulatory actions need to be taken against the field of human cloning so monopolies will not form and power will not ruin the industry. The field of human cloning is already volatile, as many companies and research laboratories are working furiously to develop a way to clone a human being. The company that cracks the code first is the obvious winner, getting all the copyright s and trademark s, along with all the money and corporate power. The power awarded to the winner of the genetic race is near godly, with profit s that would most likely exceed the account of Bill Gates. The scientists attributed with making human cloning possible would become the most powerful person in the world.
Greed, religion, and power are three negative points against human genetic engineering. The possibilities for problems are far too large for the government to allow this research to go on. The room for error is oversized and if something bad were to happen, chaos would likely soon follow. Human cloning should not be allowed.

Cloning...asexual production


Reasons for allowing human cloning:
Infertility: Infertile couples can have childs too.
Prevent spontaneous Abortion: cloning might prevent a greater understanding of miscarriage hence it might lead to treatment of spontaneous miscarriage.
Reduce Global Warming: Animals and plants can be 'tailor made' to show desirable characteristics. Genes could also be manipulated in trees for example, to absorb more CO2 and reduce the threat of global warming.
In-vitro Fertilization: Some women can only produce one egg so for them cloning that egg could lead to higher chance of pregnancy.
Cloning would allow women to have one set of indentical twins instead of going though two pregnancy.
Genetic Illness: Person may choose not to have a child that is genetically their own because of a risk with passing on a genetic illness. For them cloning could be used to give birth to a healthy.
Nervous System treatment: since adult nerve tissue cant regenerate cloning stem cell can help in treatment of damaged nervous system.
Super Humans: Selecting the most perfect genetic donor in someochild.ne’s opinion, whether it is Albert Einstein, Michael Jordan, or some other above average person, changes the norms of society. Imagine a world with fewer variations of people who are either super-geniuses or super-athletes. On the other hand, advances in science and technology would grow at an even faster rate and more people would be healthier. I judge this purpose as a sufficiently good enough reason for allowing human cloning; however, I am very suspicious of intentionally making a better race of people. Maybe I’ve seen too many science fiction movies.
Curing Diseases: The growing scientific field known as regenerative medicine, also known as therapeutic cloning, is allowing thousands of lives to be saved from cloning human cells, tissues, and even organs. Cloning human body parts guarantees a genetic match to prevent organ rejections and also does not require immunosuppressive drugs. However, this research is still in its infancy and requires a lot more time, effort, and money before it matures into saving a lot more people. If human cloning is completely banned, then this type of research would be stopped and a lot of lives would be lost. Therefore, this type of human cloning should also be allowed.
Body Replacements: One of the stranger reasons for cloning humans is for a complete body replacement. This is only science fiction now, yet it may some day be a possibility in the distant future. While it will always unethical to kill another human being to save another person, what if the cloned human body replacement did not have a brain and was intentionally designed that way from the beginning? What about replacing an aged body with a new body by transplanting the human brain? I'll leave these ethical and fuzzy questions to be answered by the reader.
Better Food products: FDA(Food and Drug Administration)  has approved the consumption of cloned animals and animal products  so there is abundant food possibility.
Better Medication
Reviving Extinct Species
Immortality

Reasons for banning human cloning:
Playing God:
Tampering Mother Nature: conception should be the only process for child birth.
No genetic Need for men: If the cloning is perfected in human being than there would be no need of men.
Religion: I believe it is impossible for anyone to know the true intentions of God if God exists. I don’t think God in any religion has directly banned human cloning. I know that the Catholic Pope is against cloning, but I find that at odds with being fruitful and multiplying.
Natural Behaviour:  Due to cloning and absence of parents who is going to teach them their natural behavior.
Sub-Human: Imagine a new race of people that are docile with super strength yet low intelligence. Next, imagine how easily for this race to fall into slavery. Cloning humans should be for the advancement of mankind and not the lessening of individuals.
Reduces Genetic Variability: Cloning may Cause creation of entirely same population.
Susceptible to Same Diseases: since the clones would to susceptible to same diseases the entire population coule be extinct because of one infected with diseases.
Older genes: Since the clones are derived from existing adult cell it has older genes the possibility of low life expentency.
Settle for the best existing animals: This wont allow the improvement of species.
Expensive process
Embryos at Risk: The process of human cloning increases the risk of harm to embryos and thus to the cloned person throughout t their life. This reason is self defeating; because as scientists learn more, cloning humans has the possibility of becoming safer than naturally developing embryos by replacing randomized risks and genetic defects.
Embryos Killed: During the human cloning process, a lot of human embryos are created and tested for viability. Some are either discarded or frozen for future use. First, it is heavily debated if killing a human embryo that is only a few living cells is murdering a person. I don’t think this argument will ever be decided upon. Second, extra embryos can be frozen, so they can avoid being killed too. Third, embryos can also be used in stem cell research, and thus possibly save human lives. And finally with further research, it could be possible to decrease the number of embryos created to only a single embryo.
Expectations: Expectations of cloned humans to be identical to the genetic original person would undoubtedly cause a lot of psychological pressure, especially while growing up. Since identical twins are genetically the same yet very different people, it is unwise to expect cloned people to behave or have the same intelligence as the original genetic person. Therefore, no one should have any expectations from cloned people.
Human Rights: A lot of people worry that cloned people would not have full rights, since they are just copies. I find this reasoning absolutely ridiculous, since a person is a person despite their genetic source or if artificially created.
Deformity in child
Create new diseases

Monday, December 17, 2012

Reason to Write Question Answer/ Summary Students' view Unit -2


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Reason to Write Question Answer/ Summary

Students' view

Unit -2





Page-29
Group-B
Every human being needs a range of necessities such as food,water,clothing,shelter,education and health care for his daily life.The economic conditions lacking these essential goods and services to meet basic need of life.Poverty is not a divine gift to the mankind.Majority of people, who think that god has made them poor and they are poor because god wrote that in their destiny since their birth,are absolutely wrong.Some see dignity in poverty, but by making their better fortune, by their oen efforts.They must make great sacrifice and show talent to work way out of poverty.
According to CIA world fact book,March 2005,Nepal is the 48th poorest countries in the world.Nepal’s half the population lives below the poverty line and about one third of the population lives without a clear water.Those people donot have access to basic needs such as food,health and education.So, the government of a country should help the poor by providing job for jobless people because without financial support,it is not possible to uplift their living standard.
Providing loan to start new business ,vocational tranning,free education to poor,encouraging them for the alternative source of income,traders in wide rouge help and so on.Family background is very important base upon which a poor man has to make a ladder to climb up out of the dark aspect of poor life.
Man needs to develop sense of understanding in the family,which ties up all family members into the knot of faith,confidence and mutual support.They must have one consensus that they will work hard together and support eachother in every way so that they can guide themsevles out of the darkness of poverty.In most families, in which a large number of working class people are still living their hard lives, they do not have faith ,confidence and mutual support.They curse their life in the dark work of poverty.
Most responsible is the man himself because he must know how to use all the available resources wisely, by his own efforts.His better fortune is determined by his own labour,consciousness and liability.




Group-B
Page-44
There are many beautiful places I have visited, and every places has its own importance and had great influence on me.Among them is Jaljala.The name of the beautiful  hill,situated at Thabang VDC of Rolpa district is Jaljala.Jaljala is at the altitude of 3193m from sea level is also as pasture land for animal farming.The natural beauty has been waiting to welcome the tourists for centuries.In addition to its natural beauty the native culture,costume,kham dialect and rural life are the cultural attractions for the tourists.
Not only the natural beauty, and cultural attraction its identity as the epicenter of Maoist People’s War is also the additional attraction for the tourists.The Maoist People’s War  and the history of Nepalese Communist Movement have been insepreable with Jaljala.Similarly,”People’s Commune”,the exercise of communism in Nepal is situated at the bottom of Jaljala where it’s the centre of study and research as well as other attractions of Jaljala.
It is said,traveling is one great form of learning.So I found it true in my life.After visiting Jaljala,I came to learn about the true beauty,cultural and histoeical background of it.Though it was for only few days in Jaljala,the place attracted me a lot.The natural beauty has been waiting to welcome the tourist for centuries.Jaljala, opens a new chapter in tourism with its additional political attraction which is unique in the Nepalese tourism than just being limited to natural cultural and historical attraction.
In 2052 B.S at the preperation of the People’s War in the country,CPN(Maoist) had launched Sija Friendship Campaign, reflecting the significance of Jaljala hill of Rolpa and Sisne mountain of Rukum district.Jaljala recognized only as the religious destination at the vicinity,started to be recongnized gradually through ‘Sija Friendship Campaign’ and expansion of People’s War.
Similarly,more than hundred species of birds and more than 100 species of herbal plants are found here.The colourful flowers blomming at the pasture land in different seasons give additional beauty to it.
What really made me amazed,was that the system of women plowing the land started from Rolpa as a new cultural transformation brought by the people’s war.Otherwise women plowing the land was against the tradition  and religion in Nepal.Women’s platoon was made first in this place at the process of the development of people’s war,the exercise of communism was initated through people’s commune in Rolpa.Now the co-operatives for the commune have been running.At the time, when socialism has been in the defensive in the world, the people’s commune and people’s co-operative had set an example.



Group-A
Section-A
According to Geoffrey Canada,” there are some Americans who think poverty stems from a lack of values and determination.”what do you think? Are people poor because of their own actions or character?
Ans: poverty concern has a long tradition. The bible notes that” the poor will be with us”. Yet no consensus exist on what is or have to measure, poverty. Every human being needs a range of necessities such as food, water, clothing,shelter, education and health care for his daily life. The economic conditions lacking these essential goods and services to meet basic need of life is called poverty.
Yes,I believe that poverty stems form a lack of values and determination because if those Americans had focuse only the countries provision then they wouldn’t have been called as a developed country. In America and certain other developed countries people have the strict rules requlation belief norms values and also the determination. those people know their duties determination and the importance of values.the strict laws provided to them has made them a self reliant and independent in cuery sectors. Due to their values and indeveloped country where as our country falls on developing country.
America and different other developed countries are more conscious about there planning and strategies and they even put the plan into action. There rules have bounded all the Americans work effectively. They implement all the plans into action and even government are really supportive this strict rules, values and determination are the concern of the Americans. Due to the perfect values and determination Americans dovat fall into poverty live. They have realiged what they are giving to due nation and what have they expect from their country.they have the ideas and techniques to uplift the life and even their government are working hand in hand for then upliftment.
People of developing country dount have the knowledge of values and determination. They donot know the odeas to uplift the life but a person can get rid of poverty by applying certain ideas in the way of living. So,we can say that people are poor because of their own actions or character. If  an individual take the decision at the right place at right time then we can surely get rid of poverty.
Thus ponerty is caused due to the lack of values and determination and also due to own character or action because if an individual does the right work at the right time it can early uplift their living standard. If an undividual refuses to work which is suitable to him but if he drugs the attitude on himself and doesn’t work he cannot uplift his living standard because a standard is msintained only if an individual earns the income.


Group A (Sec-B)

1.      Write a five paragraph summary and response essay. In the introductory paragraph summarize the personal lessons Geoffrey Canada learned from his grandmother in “Cherries for My Grandma”. Write a response that shows at least three ways that you agree or disagree with Canada. You can base your response on your own experience, your reading, or group opinion.
Ø  Canada grew up poor in the Bronx. His grandmother raised her sons by herself. At the time of lack of work, she had very little money paid and she was mostly absent from home. His mother worked hard in making clothes and doing other things to support her children. Canada and his brothers were always disappointed. They say that poverty sterns from a lack of values and determination, but in spite of having all these, they were still poor. His grandparents were hard working, moral people, they were poor.
His grandmother was a beautiful woman kind and intelligent. She saved his soul. She cooled his hot temper and anger over being poor, and she showed him there was one could enjoy a deep spiritual love of life that was not tied to material things. Both of them used to buy and eat cherries secretly because his grandfather did not like unnecessary expenses. He realized how much his mother and grandmother had sacrificed for him and his brothers.
Canada says that people talk about poverty and the poor like it’s so easy not to be poor. It takes great scarifies and talent to work your way out of poverty. He also writes that there are some Americans who think poverty stems from a lack of values and determination. His grandmother showed him that there was dignity even in poverty. She taught him how one could enjoy a deep spiritual love in life. Poverty in tough on families it’s not quite as simple to get out of as people make out.
I have myself experience poverty in my life. I still remember how struggling life we have in our family. Father didn’t care about home and about children, mother was always worried. She was working hard to up bring me and my two brothers and a sister. She managed my education. When I finished my school education I started teaching tuitions and a job of teacher in a school. Now, it’s all right. All had their own life and all are educated.
I agree that life in poverty is very difficult. It is agreeable that it takes great sacrifice and talent to work your way out of poverty. I, by my soul agree that there is dignity in poverty. Poverty can be eliminated. It is true that we must build ladders so that such children and family can climb out of poverty such ladders can be built up on the base of faith, values, determination, love and co-operation. I would go against Canada against his statement.”Yao can climb all your life and never make it out”. I have climbed and made it out by my labor thinking that a man can make his own tale, and I’m sure Canada has also made it out.

Q:2
Imagine that you left your native country to start life in a new country.write a letter back home describing your new surroundings and how they have affected you.
Ans:
 March 27, 2012
Ottawa, Canada
Dear mom and dad
I am settled at the beautiful city of Canada. It was named the national capital by queen Victoria or December 31,1857, but the government did not move there until 1866.
Canada is a north American country consisting of ten province and three territories. Located in the northern and of continent if extends form the Atlantic ocean in the east to the pacific ocean in the west and north word into the arctic ocean. Spanning over 9.9 million square kilometers Canada is the words second largest country by total area and its common border with the united states is the longest land border in the words.
Canadas two official languages are Canadian English and Canadian French. Official bilingualism is defined in the Canadian charted of rights and freedoms. Citizens have the rights where there is sufficient demand to receive federal  government service in ethics English or French and official language minorities are guaranteed there own schools  in all provinces and territories.
Canadian society is often depicted as being very progressive diverse and multicultural Canadian culture drawn influences from its broad range of constituent nationalities and policies that promote multiculturalism are constitutionally protected.
Ottawa has a semi continental climate with a warm humid summer and a very cold winter ottawas day to day weather can be changeable through the year.
The room or rent are expensive. Land and building are hardly found for purpose economically life is difficult but cultural and geographical sights are beautiful.
I will write more about Ottawa in next letter.

Group- B(chiller party)section -B
Lokesh khadka
Q 3
Page no. 44                               
                                   Birjung the second largest city in nepal and it is situated about three kiolmeter from the india northen border raxual. It is a multi lingual and multi ethic city. Birjubg is an important land entry point for goods to nepal. The city has unique sightseeing experiences in store for the visitors.

For the first first time I went to birjung with my parents. That was the first time I had a might
Travel in my life along with my parents in a neew city where I hadent gone before. I had a safe travel with no traffic jam and no crowd of people at the road.

At 9pm my travel was started .
As I went along my travel slowly all the sotres started to be close. People were inside there house and preparing to sleep. Many of the house were already in a deep sleep . my whole travel went viewing the dark scenes out from the window.
Finelly we reached at the point and it was about 5 30 am. My dad searched for a hotel but  unluckl we found that all the hoetls are packed. Its decause of the tourist people high rate. Finally we got a lodge and took a rest for a while and went to the boarder side for a visit.
This was the adventorous travel that I ever had with my family. Many things were new and surprising for me . there were lots of things to be noticed. But we had a few time so we didn’t get a chace to visit in other different places. But  through I had a visit in a few places I grabbed many memories with me.



Q no 6
From nepalese society and majority of the people are in povery line. I would not colne a favorite pet because of the economic condition. It is highly applicable for rich and foreigner who have capacity to colne any prganism.
From the cultural and traditional point of view it ia not accepted as a pet animal but same people take it as pet and I would not clone it because it is not important for me.i would not in a sense that a cat is not kept in our society.. we take them as a crule pet since its structure is not beautifully maibtained. Since ure economic conditin is also poor and inapporate . so I would not spend a million rupees in order to clone a pet. If it was favourate pet I would surely think but it is not  one of my favourate so I wouldnot clone a pet.



Q no 1
No a short encounter withsome one doesnot have as great an impact as a longterm relationship because ina short encounter we cannot have a nice interaction with the next person. But ina longterm relationship we can know each other very deeply . In longterm relationship we get a chace to know the weakness and advantages of the next person. In short term encounter we just have a glimpse of next person. in short term encounter we cannot know the behavore of next person. but in long term relation we can know each other properly , we can know the likes and dis likes of our partner. We can judge him or her . we can grab lots of menories in long term relation ship. We can be very close to each other in longterm relation ship.we can know each the importance of relation ship. A relationship with short encounter will not be long lasting.
We can know each other nicely in longterm relation ship but it is not possible in short encounter. So a short encounters with some one doesnot have as great an impact as a long term relation ship.

Q no 2
 Human colning can be done for different purpose like producing a new clone or for the replacement of ill organs or brain transplant. Stem cell can colne a cell like a heart cells an entire person. clonning steam cells can be used to treat cancer patients.
As human colnning is the creation of geneticallyidentical copy of an exisiting or previsoly exisiting human. The term is generally used to refer to artifical human cloning. There are 2 commonly discussed types of human cloning.the rapearic cloning and reproductive colning.the sapecetic cloning involves cloning adult cells for use in medicine and it is active area of research. Reproductive clonning would involve making cloned humans. A third type of cloning called replacement cloning . replacement cloning would entail the relplacement of an extensively damaged failed or failing body through cloning fallowed by whole or partical brain transplant.
 
  Clonning human cells to save lives or cure diceases may be acceptable in some extent because it is one of the great development of medical technology but for me it is not acceptable or  cure disease. There are many challengees of cloning human stem cells because noboby knows that may be in positiveor negativeaspects. As in mordern world the issues of population is one of the deadache issues for all the countries , it implemented in the practical behavior the many problems and consquenses may arise in the world. People may suffer from pollutions scarity of psysiological need. It may create disturbance in the world that may lead crime , revolution etc.


 From social and ethical point of view . it may not acceptable because we can see different conflict on humanity in the society . and if it would be taken as one of the development in medical science technology then person suffered or caused from disease cannot die and he may produce many social pand ethical problem.

For example if any terriost leader is cloned with the help pf any technology of clonning he or she may damage the world . the world may not be free from conflict , war , frustration . peace and human ity cannot be established. Everywhere the process of clonning may create the un acceptable behavior which cannot be acceptedin the society.


Qno5

Every human beings needs a range of basic necessities , such as food , water, clothing , shelter, education and health care for his life. The econimic condition of lacking these essential foods and services to meet basic needs of life called poverty. While poverty  exists every where it is most serve in developing countries. Where more than one person in five lives an less than 1 dallore a day. The thrice hold , which is being used by the world bank to define extreme poverty.

First of all a person needs better education to climb out of poverty. Education is the crux of all solution . a person may be qualified in different sector.that is some may be in technology some may be in agriculture etc so they have to implement their knowledge or mind in their secotr. Such as a farmer can modernizes his farming , a technician can discover new things which help them to improve the quality of life. And there isnot possibility to every poor people can get betterthings that helps a person to climb out of poverty. hes/she should passionate.

The government of a country should be responsible for people. Every necessities should fulfil by the government of the country. So that the government is responsible to climbout  of poverty. It is providing a lot of opportunities to the poor people such as tree education, skillful traning, vocational traning,free medical care, modern instruments for the better farming etc. these things helps to them for better life. Nepals context there are few district where the government directly providing money to the poor people. So the government can do a lot of things for the poor people.

A family play a vital role in over coming poverty. A family should not depend on one persons income. Every member of the family should be responsible for income. Every member in family can contribute expenditure who has income. Stopping a child to spend more money . every member should be creative in the field of work. They can start a family business by investing low capital but cash haigh profit, gradually this helps them to flourish their business in big area s. these ideas may help them to over  coming poverty.

Thus every person can climb out of poverty he/she  is given an opportunities to enhance their creativitiy. Their family is very responsible in over coming poverty because of a single individual cannot be succced in every plalform but  a team work can get succes. The constructive work done in group or as by family members will give a good reasult and a small step of the family member can be big project in decling poverty rate of the country. Hence family is important in overcoming poverty.

Group -c (RED DEVILS) - section –A
Q.2>
Ans. - we usually have impact of some people upon our life, and this impact can be good impact is always preferred by us, bad impact is also remembered for the result we get from it. Sometimes, good influence becomes a bad one.
One day nearby dashian, one of my close friends suggested me to invest on monthly installment program. His intention was good. He had also invested money on that program. He had a good influence upon me. I accepted the proposal. The program failed after a few months and I lost rs.2000 and he lost rs.6000.
The people that get to know us best from our virtues to flaws are our parents. They have the greatest influence in our life because they are the people we see the most and have known for the longest time. They sacrifice many luxuries in order to give us the best life possible.
My mother has had a huge impact on my life and it is because of her that I am the person, I am today and today where I am most of people say that I am a lot alike like my mother both physically and mentally. We both have the same mannerism, facial expression, and even thoughts processes. We love to learn and travel, spend time with families. From observing my mother behavior and listening to her lectures, she has had a great influence on my life, choices, and personality.
My mother helped me to make one of the most important decisions, which is to choose between living in Pokhara with her and the rest of my family, and living by myself in Kathmandu in my home town. This decision was hard for me to make, since I was born, raised and had lived my whole life in Kathmandu and did not want to leave for several reasons-school friends, girl friends and many more other memories. One day she sat down with me and told me how important it is to have trust in myself with everything that I do, not to be afraid of making wrong choices or any decisions. She said no matter which way I will choose, she will always be there for me. I started crying and hugged her. She gave me the choice of staying in Kathmandu. No mother would over give that opportunity to her son knowing that he might not see him for a long time. She gave me that choice to make, but I decided to stay with her, just because of being with her, just because of being with her, continue learning from her, and hopefully someday being great lecturers like her.
Group A


1.     According to Geoffery Canada, “There are some Americans who think poverty stems from a lack of values and determination”. What do you think? Are people poor because of their own actions or character?
              
                          I don’t think poverty stems from a lack of values and determination because the writers grandparent’s were hard working person’s and they were honest. Even they do hard work they cannot climb out of poverty. The writer’s mother made clothes by herself and she even make the toys for her children’s from the cereal box. She walks more distance and went to work by train to save a little money. She was very careful in spending money. Even they do hard work, honest and spends money carefully they were still poor.
                              I think a person’s character and actions have nothing to do with poverty. There are many persons in our society, like writer’s mother, who is honest, who doesn’t like to cheat anybody, and who does not like to beg anything from any one. They work hard day and night, but they are still poor. It is a system of government which makes them poor. If a person were poor because of laziness, it would be acceptable. But he/she works hard and is still poor it is not acceptable and it is not a good sign.
                              Mostly, poor people are uneducated and they don’t have enough knowledge to know how they have been cheated by government. They are less aware about what is happening in the society. The poor have less economic and political influence than other people.
                           If the government makes law property or looking at the condition of the poor then they might get chances to do something. The government should pass minimum wage laws that establish the hourly wages employers can pay. When the income of a people rise they think of improving the condition of lifestyle, the education of children and themselves. So, the government should start educational programs designe to give the poor knowledge and skills. Scholarships and work study programs may help many needy students to attend college.

   2. Letter

Respected Mummy
Sweet remembrance

       Mummy, I have many things to share with you from this letter so, I am writing in while page with black ink. Firstly, I miss my all family. It is difficult to live in others country without family. Really life is so difficult to maintain. We have to balance different relation, works, and carrier for ruming the successful life. So, mum I feel really sad to apart from you.
       In telling truth, I feel many difficulties to adjust in new surroundingss. This surrounding, environment is completely different from ours. The people’s behaviors, traditions, culture, language, customs, foods etc. adopting the other environment is difficult. I fell odd to adopt their rules and regulation. In context of Nepal, our surrounding is good and helpful in nature people. Neighbors help in the time of need, emergency as their own relatives or members. They help in correction of our mistakes. They provide news, ideas, and techniques and help to save our culture. But in Indian context, we Nepali are dominated. Their thinking perspective was wrong. They treated us like their enemies. They didn’t provide chances to involve in development works of society. Even few are friendly. They try to feel us this surrounding is also yours. You have to tolerate some problems for few months or try to adjust with them then automatically the environment may change.
     This new surrounding is advanced than our surroundings. Different technique, tools are used for the easiness of doing work. People used the scientific method for the agriculture. There people think we have to engaged in small work instead of sitting home. The children of poor family helped their parents to finish the work. The children don’t do to school. Their parents think that what achievement did they get by going to school? If they work with us they learn how to work which is helpful for the earning money for the future.
     I feel sad and shocked listening their thinking. In this scientific and modern age, there are people who didn’t know the importance of education. The many of the culture, traditions, customs, foods etc are similar to Nepal but they celebrate highly. Even the people who don’t have food to eat morning and night they take loan to celebrate showing to people who are rick. It is not good. Being a rich for few hours doesn’t mean you are rich after the celebration you are in own condition with heavy load problem which you have to pay for others.
         Everyone feels uncomfortable and faces many problems while adjusting in new surroundings. Like that, I also feel. There are some positive and negative impacts while adjusting. There people’s behavior, thinking’s, are different. Some dominates me and some help to grew up. Little chances are found which adjusting in new surrounding with old surrounding.
Group A


1.     According to Geoffery Canada, “There are some Americans who think poverty stems from a lack of values and determination”. What do you think? Are people poor because of their own actions or character?
              
                          I don’t think poverty stems from a lack of values and determination because the writers grandparent’s were hard working person’s and they were honest. Even they do hard work they cannot climb out of poverty. The writer’s mother made clothes by herself and she even make the toys for her children’s from the cereal box. She walks more distance and went to work by train to save a little money. She was very careful in spending money. Even they do hard work, honest and spends money carefully they were still poor.
                              I think a person’s character and actions have nothing to do with poverty. There are many persons in our society, like writer’s mother, who is honest, who doesn’t like to cheat anybody, and who does not like to beg anything from any one. They work hard day and night, but they are still poor. It is a system of government which makes them poor. If a person were poor because of laziness, it would be acceptable. But he/she works hard and is still poor it is not acceptable and it is not a good sign.
                              Mostly, poor people are uneducated and they don’t have enough knowledge to know how they have been cheated by government. They are less aware about what is happening in the society. The poor have less economic and political influence than other people.
                           If the government makes law property or looking at the condition of the poor then they might get chances to do something. The government should pass minimum wage laws that establish the hourly wages employers can pay. When the income of a people rise they think of improving the condition of lifestyle, the education of children and themselves. So, the government should start educational programs designe to give the poor knowledge and skills. Scholarships and work study programs may help many needy students to attend college.

   2. Letter

Respected Mummy
Sweet remembrance

       Mummy, I have many things to share with you from this letter so, I am writing in while page with black ink. Firstly, I miss my all family. It is difficult to live in others country without family. Really life is so difficult to maintain. We have to balance different relation, works, and carrier for ruming the successful life. So, mum I feel really sad to apart from you.
       In telling truth, I feel many difficulties to adjust in new surroundingss. This surrounding, environment is completely different from ours. The people’s behaviors, traditions, culture, language, customs, foods etc. adopting the other environment is difficult. I fell odd to adopt their rules and regulation. In context of Nepal, our surrounding is good and helpful in nature people. Neighbors help in the time of need, emergency as their own relatives or members. They help in correction of our mistakes. They provide news, ideas, and techniques and help to save our culture. But in Indian context, we Nepali are dominated. Their thinking perspective was wrong. They treated us like their enemies. They didn’t provide chances to involve in development works of society. Even few are friendly. They try to feel us this surrounding is also yours. You have to tolerate some problems for few months or try to adjust with them then automatically the environment may change.
     This new surrounding is advanced than our surroundings. Different technique, tools are used for the easiness of doing work. People used the scientific method for the agriculture. There people think we have to engaged in small work instead of sitting home. The children of poor family helped their parents to finish the work. The children don’t do to school. Their parents think that what achievement did they get by going to school? If they work with us they learn how to work which is helpful for the earning money for the future.
     I feel sad and shocked listening their thinking. In this scientific and modern age, there are people who didn’t know the importance of education. The many of the culture, traditions, customs, foods etc are similar to Nepal but they celebrate highly. Even the people who don’t have food to eat morning and night they take loan to celebrate showing to people who are rick. It is not good. Being a rich for few hours doesn’t mean you are rich after the celebration you are in own condition with heavy load problem which you have to pay for others.
         Everyone feels uncomfortable and faces many problems while adjusting in new surroundings. Like that, I also feel. There are some positive and negative impacts while adjusting. There people’s behavior, thinking’s, are different. Some dominates me and some help to grew up. Little chances are found which adjusting in new surrounding with old surrounding.

                           
 1.Can a short encounter with someone have as great an impact as a long term relationship? If so, give an example. If not why not?
        It is possible to have a long term relationship while having a short encounter with someone but the moment of interaction have to be very much effective with perfect balance of conversation or interaction. I am not in touch with anyone of my past life but that does not mean I will never be. There have to be perfect match up or interesting behavior to affect me for long term relationships.
For example, it was the time when I was at basketball court waiting for my classmates to come. I was sitting there for almost 1hr and suddenly a girl came and she started to talk with me. First, i was totally trying to ignore her but as she kept talking; my interest was developing to hear her. It is my habit that I usually do not prefer talking with everyone though we have seen each other from long time ago. I think too many friends is just a burden, it will just create too many problems and too many enemy. I believe in few friends but long lasting relationships. However, I have always felt uncomfortable while interacting with girls but that time was extremely different from the usual one.
She keeps talking and I started to reply her back. As our conversation was moving on, she started her very brilliant and pure ideas about relationships, life and the struggle she has done in her life. I was very much influenced by her words and her courage of handling both happiness and sadness in very balanced way in her life. I still remember that one sentence she had said to me “life is the cycle of hope, love and despair, and if u wants then u can make it just full of love also”. That sentence extremely blew my mind and I started to believe that. Whatever may be the problem of individual but everyone can come out of that problem in order to make the life effective and free like bird. I also started to share all my feelings and she appreciated my views too. However, our conversation was just of 45min but that 45min help us both to stay in touch for rest of our life. It was the day when my mind gave a birth to a new hope of life and the best part is, hope is a very good sign of better life.
Truly, that short encounter between us will be memory until the end of my life. In that day if she had not come to talk with me, then I should have not been talking with other today. Her words, her way of thinking influenced me very much. The basic reason behind believing her is because, she used to talk and discuss about the dark side of human life and I love that topic too. It is very rare to see a girl getting concerned about those subjects’ even boys does not think and talk in that subject.
Today, I did not regret talking with anyone because I have the hope of living through different circumstances, problems, pain and loneliness’ because of her. Strength and courage have always been marching on my souls since that beautiful conversation with her. We still talk today time by time on phone. The short encounter with her helped us a lot to build our relation stronger and always alive.

The James Russell Lowell quotation "whatever you may be sure ob be sure of this-that you are dreadfully like other people" describes human similarly with respect to their visible diversity.The quote means that there is not a significant difference among human beings.
       Yes,I agree with the quotation.we human beings make the difference ourselves.By categorizing in our own ways like as an attitude,life style,personality,activities,etc and so express we are different or feel that i am different from him/her  in this context,i am superior than others.I have an unique identity.I have carried myself in dignified and prestigious personality etc.
      As we can do all this to show different but we exactly do this because life is a race and every people are directly or indirectly participants of the daily competition and challenges,areas they belong to and also with the people among them.Its human nature of comparing one element with other that may be between individuals or among the groups because of these regular things occured or happened  in our daily life we say ourselves different and try to present ourselves best out of best.
      During all these incidents we do not get time to realize or we are careless to realize .We are bio-logically similar in living our lives.The way we have the reactions an any incidents.Whatever a person close the next other persons also do the same.People have common feelings,emotions,sentiments,interest,impulses,etc.When a person is defeated he gets sad as every people become sad when they do not accquire what they want.Every single individual want to eat when they are hungry.If a person becomes happy listining the good news,occuring in his life and on his achievements everyone do the same.Everyone have the guts to win.All people have the feeling of jealousy wining each other helping each other etc .All human beings have the same nature because we accquire all these qualities by birth and after all why not,human reproduction by birth and after all why not human reproduction process  of giving birth is same and if we are born we will definately die.It becomes different the way they are grown up and the environment they adopt.so,diversity in human beings is limited in surface level only moreover there is uniformity in human.

Every human beings needs an inspiration for the personality development.so,as i was also inspired by elders which has really helped me to be the way i am today.The childhood moments that i spend with my father and brother are still fresh in my mind.I remember all the events that happened in my childhood they were very joyful,loving.when i remember that things it makes me happy.
                                     we belong from Gachiya,itahari it is very loving place.Me and my elder brother,dad.mom and two small brother used to live in the house.My mom is also independent women and she has to go for job so we have a mutuality in our family and my father always help my mom in household work.It has inspired me,always looking towards my friends father they were conservative and narrow minded but my dad is not like them.He is different than others.
                              Although we belong from Petri archial society but my dad and elder brother don't think like other.They were so loving and caring for me and my mom.My father and elder brother always conscious  about me and my study.Both helped me in every step and make decision of my life.He never did partiality between me and brothers in fact he cares me more than my brothers.His thinking and his point of view towards society,family,daughter,wife are also inspiring for me.
                                               when my mom and dad were in their respective jobs my elder brother care me and i was very naughty,i used to panic him, a lot but he always pampered me.And i also pampered by younger brothers.My family taught us from very beginning,respecting the elders and loving the youngers which are still continued.When we get time after study we used to play the games together.My dad used to bring toys and different kinds of chocolates we shared among us.During the holidays we used to go for outing.My elder brother taught me to adopt myself according to the situation.So what i am is today all of the credit goes to my brother and dad.Its all because of the lessons that i learnt during my childhood from them.
                                            My dad and my  brother were always adorable and very antic for me.Whenever i established my career  my first salary i'll spent on them whatever the situation i get to help them i am always ready to help them.All of my success i will achieve in my life.I heartly remember them and thanks  for making me the way i am.In nutshell ,my dad and my brother are the very special person in my life and the memories of my childhood i already spent with them i missed a lot.I always want to spend my childhood again which i already left back but it is impossible.

Can the impact one person has on another person change?can a good influence become a bad one? Why?
answer- Yes,oviously the impact of one person has ob another persobln change.Science has also proved this impact on another person change theory.Another emphasis views personaluty as the study of individual differences,in other words ,how people differ from each other and change is included in them when they came up to meet.
          People get influence of other.Some people get influence by others behaviours,characteristics,beauty and so on other factors like them.The impact of influence is determined on tge way of understanding and getting it into good use by the person who is getting it.If he/she gets the bad influence of a person than oviously it is bad.But if a person tries to take use up the good things of other person than oviously it is good.So it depends uponwho is giving and who is taking.

Alternative task        group-A
Write a five paragraph  summary and response essay. In the introductory paragraph, summarize the personal lessons Geoffrey  Canada learned from his grandmother in “cherries for my grandma” write a response that shows at  least three ways that you agree or disagree with Canada. You Can base your response on your own experience, your reading, or your poinion.
Geoffery Canada grewup poor family in the Bronx. His mother raised her sons by herself. At the time of lack of work they were on welfare, but on her work she had very little money to paid. She used to be mostly absent from home . his mother used to work hard in making clothes and doing other things to support her children. Geoffery Canada and his brother were disappointed. They say that poverty stems from a lack of values and determinations, but inspite of having all these, they were still poor. But his grandparents were hard working, normal people.
Geoffery canada’s grandma was a beautiful women, kind and intelligent. She saved his soul. She cooled his (geoffery Canada’)not temper and anger is dignity even is poverty. She tought to geoffery Canada now to enjoy in a deep spiritual love of life that was not tied to materials things. Gepffery Canada and his grandma used to bye and eat cherries secrety. From their geoffery Canada realized that how much his mother and grandmother had sacrified for him and his brothers
Geoffery Canada says that people used to talk about poverty and the poor like its so easy that not be poor. It would take great sacrifice and talent to work out of the poverty. Geoffery Canada grandmother should that there was dignity even in poverty. Poverty is tough on families in many ways. It is not from poverty. All of them must be careful to make sure that we can beuld ladders so that children and the families can climb out of poverty.
While reading this story”cherries for grandma”. I realized one story the life history of josei toda. He was called as great philosopher. The story of cherries for grandma and the life history of josei toda  come similar. I still remember how struggling life they had in their family. Father did not care about nome and not about children, nother was always worried. She was working hard to upbringing to him his brother and a sister. However he managed the to finished the education after finishing the school education he started teach the tuitions and also look a job of teacher in a school. Josei toda had worked hard to manage everything to his family. But new, she is all right and happy because his sister got married and fine is her home and  fine in her home and his two brother also how good education and jobs.
So, I agree that life is poverty is very difficult I agree that it takes great sacrifice and talent to work out of poverty. Everyone should be agree that there is dignity is poverty. Yes, I don’t agree that one cannot make a way out of poverty.by the values and determination poverty can be eliminatioal. It is true that we must build ladders so that childrens and all the family members can climb out of poverty, such ladders can be built up on the bases of faith, value determination love and co-operation and mutual understanding.